[PATCH v6 00/12] Support non-lru page migration

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[PATCH v6 00/12] Support non-lru page migration

Minchan Kim-2
Recently, I got many reports about perfermance degradation in embedded
system(Android mobile phone, webOS TV and so on) and easy fork fail.

The problem was fragmentation caused by zram and GPU driver mainly.
With memory pressure, their pages were spread out all of pageblock and
it cannot be migrated with current compaction algorithm which supports
only LRU pages. In the end, compaction cannot work well so reclaimer
shrinks all of working set pages. It made system very slow and even to
fail to fork easily which requires order-[2 or 3] allocations.

Other pain point is that they cannot use CMA memory space so when OOM
kill happens, I can see many free pages in CMA area, which is not
memory efficient. In our product which has big CMA memory, it reclaims
zones too exccessively to allocate GPU and zram page although there are
lots of free space in CMA so system becomes very slow easily.

To solve these problem, this patch tries to add facility to migrate
non-lru pages via introducing new functions and page flags to help
migration.


struct address_space_operations {
        ..
        ..
        bool (*isolate_page)(struct page *, isolate_mode_t);
        void (*putback_page)(struct page *);
        ..
}

new page flags

        PG_movable
        PG_isolated

For details, please read description in "mm: migrate: support non-lru
movable page migration".

Originally, Gioh Kim had tried to support this feature but he moved so
I took over the work. I took many code from his work and changed a little
bit and Konstantin Khlebnikov helped Gioh a lot so he should deserve to have
many credit, too.

And I should mention Chulmin who have tested this patchset heavily
so I can find many bugs from him. :)

Thanks, Gioh, Konstantin and Chulmin!

This patchset consists of five parts.

1. clean up migration
  mm: use put_page to free page instead of putback_lru_page

2. add non-lru page migration feature
  mm: migrate: support non-lru movable page migration

3. rework KVM memory-ballooning
  mm: balloon: use general non-lru movable page feature

4. zsmalloc refactoring for preparing page migration
  zsmalloc: keep max_object in size_class
  zsmalloc: use bit_spin_lock
  zsmalloc: use accessor
  zsmalloc: factor page chain functionality out
  zsmalloc: introduce zspage structure
  zsmalloc: separate free_zspage from putback_zspage
  zsmalloc: use freeobj for index

5. zsmalloc page migration
  zsmalloc: page migration support
  zram: use __GFP_MOVABLE for memory allocation

* From v5
  * rebase on next-20160520
  * move utility functions to compaction.c and export - Sergey
  * zsmalloc dobule free fix - Sergey
  * add additional Reviewed-by for zsmalloc - Sergey

* From v4
  * rebase on mmotm-2016-05-05-17-19
  * fix huge object migration - Chulmin
  * !CONFIG_COMPACTION support for zsmalloc

* From v3
  * rebase on mmotm-2016-04-06-20-40
  * fix swap_info deadlock - Chulmin
  * race without page_lock - Vlastimil
  * no use page._mapcount for potential user-mapped page driver - Vlastimil
  * fix and enhance doc/description - Vlastimil
  * use page->mapping lower bits to represent PG_movable
  * make driver side's rule simple.

* From v2
  * rebase on mmotm-2016-03-29-15-54-16
  * check PageMovable before lock_page - Joonsoo
  * check PageMovable before PageIsolated checking - Joonsoo
  * add more description about rule

* From v1
  * rebase on v4.5-mmotm-2016-03-17-15-04
  * reordering patches to merge clean-up patches first
  * add Acked-by/Reviewed-by from Vlastimil and Sergey
  * use each own mount model instead of reusing anon_inode_fs - Al Viro
  * small changes - YiPing, Gioh

Cc: Vlastimil Babka <[hidden email]>
Cc: [hidden email]
Cc: Hugh Dickins <[hidden email]>
Cc: John Einar Reitan <[hidden email]>
Cc: Jonathan Corbet <[hidden email]>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <[hidden email]>
Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <[hidden email]>
Cc: Mel Gorman <[hidden email]>
Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <[hidden email]>
Cc: Rafael Aquini <[hidden email]>
Cc: Rik van Riel <[hidden email]>
Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Cc: [hidden email]
Cc: Gioh Kim <[hidden email]>
Cc: Chan Gyun Jeong <[hidden email]>
Cc: Sangseok Lee <[hidden email]>
Cc: Kyeongdon Kim <[hidden email]>
Cc: Chulmin Kim <[hidden email]>

Minchan Kim (12):
  mm: use put_page to free page instead of putback_lru_page
  mm: migrate: support non-lru movable page migration
  mm: balloon: use general non-lru movable page feature
  zsmalloc: keep max_object in size_class
  zsmalloc: use bit_spin_lock
  zsmalloc: use accessor
  zsmalloc: factor page chain functionality out
  zsmalloc: introduce zspage structure
  zsmalloc: separate free_zspage from putback_zspage
  zsmalloc: use freeobj for index
  zsmalloc: page migration support
  zram: use __GFP_MOVABLE for memory allocation

 Documentation/filesystems/Locking  |    4 +
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt  |   11 +
 Documentation/vm/page_migration    |  107 ++-
 drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c      |    6 +-
 drivers/virtio/virtio_balloon.c    |   54 +-
 include/linux/balloon_compaction.h |   53 +-
 include/linux/compaction.h         |   17 +
 include/linux/fs.h                 |    2 +
 include/linux/ksm.h                |    3 +-
 include/linux/migrate.h            |    2 +
 include/linux/mm.h                 |    1 +
 include/linux/page-flags.h         |   33 +-
 include/uapi/linux/magic.h         |    2 +
 mm/balloon_compaction.c            |   94 +--
 mm/compaction.c                    |   76 +-
 mm/ksm.c                           |    4 +-
 mm/migrate.c                       |  256 +++++--
 mm/page_alloc.c                    |    2 +-
 mm/util.c                          |    6 +-
 mm/vmscan.c                        |    2 +-
 mm/zsmalloc.c                      | 1351 +++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------
 21 files changed, 1475 insertions(+), 611 deletions(-)

--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 01/12] mm: use put_page to free page instead of putback_lru_page

Minchan Kim-2
Procedure of page migration is as follows:

First of all, it should isolate a page from LRU and try to
migrate the page. If it is successful, it releases the page
for freeing. Otherwise, it should put the page back to LRU
list.

For LRU pages, we have used putback_lru_page for both freeing
and putback to LRU list. It's okay because put_page is aware of
LRU list so if it releases last refcount of the page, it removes
the page from LRU list. However, It makes unnecessary operations
(e.g., lru_cache_add, pagevec and flags operations. It would be
not significant but no worth to do) and harder to support new
non-lru page migration because put_page isn't aware of non-lru
page's data structure.

To solve the problem, we can add new hook in put_page with
PageMovable flags check but it can increase overhead in
hot path and needs new locking scheme to stabilize the flag check
with put_page.

So, this patch cleans it up to divide two semantic(ie, put and putback).
If migration is successful, use put_page instead of putback_lru_page and
use putback_lru_page only on failure. That makes code more readable
and doesn't add overhead in put_page.

Comment from Vlastimil
"Yeah, and compaction (perhaps also other migration users) has to drain
the lru pvec... Getting rid of this stuff is worth even by itself."

Cc: Rik van Riel <[hidden email]>
Cc: Mel Gorman <[hidden email]>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <[hidden email]>
Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <[hidden email]>
Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 mm/migrate.c | 64 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------------
 1 file changed, 40 insertions(+), 24 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/migrate.c b/mm/migrate.c
index 9baf41c877ff..2666f28b5236 100644
--- a/mm/migrate.c
+++ b/mm/migrate.c
@@ -913,6 +913,19 @@ static int __unmap_and_move(struct page *page, struct page *newpage,
  put_anon_vma(anon_vma);
  unlock_page(page);
 out:
+ /*
+ * If migration is successful, decrease refcount of the newpage
+ * which will not free the page because new page owner increased
+ * refcounter. As well, if it is LRU page, add the page to LRU
+ * list in here.
+ */
+ if (rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS) {
+ if (unlikely(__is_movable_balloon_page(newpage)))
+ put_page(newpage);
+ else
+ putback_lru_page(newpage);
+ }
+
  return rc;
 }
 
@@ -946,6 +959,12 @@ static ICE_noinline int unmap_and_move(new_page_t get_new_page,
 
  if (page_count(page) == 1) {
  /* page was freed from under us. So we are done. */
+ ClearPageActive(page);
+ ClearPageUnevictable(page);
+ if (put_new_page)
+ put_new_page(newpage, private);
+ else
+ put_page(newpage);
  goto out;
  }
 
@@ -958,10 +977,8 @@ static ICE_noinline int unmap_and_move(new_page_t get_new_page,
  }
 
  rc = __unmap_and_move(page, newpage, force, mode);
- if (rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS) {
- put_new_page = NULL;
+ if (rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS)
  set_page_owner_migrate_reason(newpage, reason);
- }
 
 out:
  if (rc != -EAGAIN) {
@@ -974,34 +991,33 @@ static ICE_noinline int unmap_and_move(new_page_t get_new_page,
  list_del(&page->lru);
  dec_zone_page_state(page, NR_ISOLATED_ANON +
  page_is_file_cache(page));
- /* Soft-offlined page shouldn't go through lru cache list */
- if (reason == MR_MEMORY_FAILURE && rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS) {
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * If migration is successful, releases reference grabbed during
+ * isolation. Otherwise, restore the page to right list unless
+ * we want to retry.
+ */
+ if (rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS) {
+ put_page(page);
+ if (reason == MR_MEMORY_FAILURE) {
  /*
- * With this release, we free successfully migrated
- * page and set PG_HWPoison on just freed page
- * intentionally. Although it's rather weird, it's how
- * HWPoison flag works at the moment.
+ * Set PG_HWPoison on just freed page
+ * intentionally. Although it's rather weird,
+ * it's how HWPoison flag works at the moment.
  */
- put_page(page);
  if (!test_set_page_hwpoison(page))
  num_poisoned_pages_inc();
- } else
+ }
+ } else {
+ if (rc != -EAGAIN)
  putback_lru_page(page);
+ if (put_new_page)
+ put_new_page(newpage, private);
+ else
+ put_page(newpage);
  }
 
- /*
- * If migration was not successful and there's a freeing callback, use
- * it.  Otherwise, putback_lru_page() will drop the reference grabbed
- * during isolation.
- */
- if (put_new_page)
- put_new_page(newpage, private);
- else if (unlikely(__is_movable_balloon_page(newpage))) {
- /* drop our reference, page already in the balloon */
- put_page(newpage);
- } else
- putback_lru_page(newpage);
-
  if (result) {
  if (rc)
  *result = rc;
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 02/12] mm: migrate: support non-lru movable page migration

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
We have allowed migration for only LRU pages until now and it was
enough to make high-order pages. But recently, embedded system(e.g.,
webOS, android) uses lots of non-movable pages(e.g., zram, GPU memory)
so we have seen several reports about troubles of small high-order
allocation. For fixing the problem, there were several efforts
(e,g,. enhance compaction algorithm, SLUB fallback to 0-order page,
reserved memory, vmalloc and so on) but if there are lots of
non-movable pages in system, their solutions are void in the long run.

So, this patch is to support facility to change non-movable pages
with movable. For the feature, this patch introduces functions related
to migration to address_space_operations as well as some page flags.

If a driver want to make own pages movable, it should define three functions
which are function pointers of struct address_space_operations.

1. bool (*isolate_page) (struct page *page, isolate_mode_t mode);

What VM expects on isolate_page function of driver is to return *true*
if driver isolates page successfully. On returing true, VM marks the page
as PG_isolated so concurrent isolation in several CPUs skip the page
for isolation. If a driver cannot isolate the page, it should return *false*.

Once page is successfully isolated, VM uses page.lru fields so driver
shouldn't expect to preserve values in that fields.

2. int (*migratepage) (struct address_space *mapping,
                struct page *newpage, struct page *oldpage, enum migrate_mode);

After isolation, VM calls migratepage of driver with isolated page.
The function of migratepage is to move content of the old page to new page
and set up fields of struct page newpage. Keep in mind that you should
clear PG_movable of oldpage via __ClearPageMovable under page_lock if you
migrated the oldpage successfully and returns 0.
If driver cannot migrate the page at the moment, driver can return -EAGAIN.
On -EAGAIN, VM will retry page migration in a short time because VM interprets
-EAGAIN as "temporal migration failure". On returning any error except -EAGAIN,
VM will give up the page migration without retrying in this time.

Driver shouldn't touch page.lru field VM using in the functions.

3. void (*putback_page)(struct page *);

If migration fails on isolated page, VM should return the isolated page
to the driver so VM calls driver's putback_page with migration failed page.
In this function, driver should put the isolated page back to the own data
structure.

4. non-lru movable page flags

There are two page flags for supporting non-lru movable page.

* PG_movable

Driver should use the below function to make page movable under page_lock.

        void __SetPageMovable(struct page *page, struct address_space *mapping)

It needs argument of address_space for registering migration family functions
which will be called by VM. Exactly speaking, PG_movable is not a real flag of
struct page. Rather than, VM reuses page->mapping's lower bits to represent it.

        #define PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE 0x2
        page->mapping = page->mapping | PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE;

so driver shouldn't access page->mapping directly. Instead, driver should
use page_mapping which mask off the low two bits of page->mapping so it can get
right struct address_space.

For testing of non-lru movable page, VM supports __PageMovable function.
However, it doesn't guarantee to identify non-lru movable page because
page->mapping field is unified with other variables in struct page.
As well, if driver releases the page after isolation by VM, page->mapping
doesn't have stable value although it has PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE
(Look at __ClearPageMovable). But __PageMovable is cheap to catch whether
page is LRU or non-lru movable once the page has been isolated. Because
LRU pages never can have PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE in page->mapping. It is also
good for just peeking to test non-lru movable pages before more expensive
checking with lock_page in pfn scanning to select victim.

For guaranteeing non-lru movable page, VM provides PageMovable function.
Unlike __PageMovable, PageMovable functions validates page->mapping and
mapping->a_ops->isolate_page under lock_page. The lock_page prevents sudden
destroying of page->mapping.

Driver using __SetPageMovable should clear the flag via __ClearMovablePage
under page_lock before the releasing the page.

* PG_isolated

To prevent concurrent isolation among several CPUs, VM marks isolated page
as PG_isolated under lock_page. So if a CPU encounters PG_isolated non-lru
movable page, it can skip it. Driver doesn't need to manipulate the flag
because VM will set/clear it automatically. Keep in mind that if driver
sees PG_isolated page, it means the page have been isolated by VM so it
shouldn't touch page.lru field.
PG_isolated is alias with PG_reclaim flag so driver shouldn't use the flag
for own purpose.

Cc: Rik van Riel <[hidden email]>
Cc: Vlastimil Babka <[hidden email]>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <[hidden email]>
Cc: Mel Gorman <[hidden email]>
Cc: Hugh Dickins <[hidden email]>
Cc: Rafael Aquini <[hidden email]>
Cc: [hidden email]
Cc: Jonathan Corbet <[hidden email]>
Cc: John Einar Reitan <[hidden email]>
Cc: [hidden email]
Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Gioh Kim <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 Documentation/filesystems/Locking |   4 +
 Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt |  11 +++
 Documentation/vm/page_migration   | 107 ++++++++++++++++++++-
 include/linux/compaction.h        |  17 ++++
 include/linux/fs.h                |   2 +
 include/linux/ksm.h               |   3 +-
 include/linux/migrate.h           |   2 +
 include/linux/mm.h                |   1 +
 include/linux/page-flags.h        |  33 +++++--
 mm/compaction.c                   |  82 ++++++++++++----
 mm/ksm.c                          |   4 +-
 mm/migrate.c                      | 191 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
 mm/page_alloc.c                   |   2 +-
 mm/util.c                         |   6 +-
 14 files changed, 411 insertions(+), 54 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/Locking b/Documentation/filesystems/Locking
index 75eea7ce3d7c..dda6e3f8e203 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/Locking
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/Locking
@@ -195,7 +195,9 @@ unlocks and drops the reference.
  int (*releasepage) (struct page *, int);
  void (*freepage)(struct page *);
  int (*direct_IO)(struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *iter);
+ bool (*isolate_page) (struct page *, isolate_mode_t);
  int (*migratepage)(struct address_space *, struct page *, struct page *);
+ void (*putback_page) (struct page *);
  int (*launder_page)(struct page *);
  int (*is_partially_uptodate)(struct page *, unsigned long, unsigned long);
  int (*error_remove_page)(struct address_space *, struct page *);
@@ -219,7 +221,9 @@ invalidatepage: yes
 releasepage: yes
 freepage: yes
 direct_IO:
+isolate_page: yes
 migratepage: yes (both)
+putback_page: yes
 launder_page: yes
 is_partially_uptodate: yes
 error_remove_page: yes
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
index c61a223ef3ff..900360cbcdae 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt
@@ -592,9 +592,14 @@ struct address_space_operations {
  int (*releasepage) (struct page *, int);
  void (*freepage)(struct page *);
  ssize_t (*direct_IO)(struct kiocb *, struct iov_iter *iter);
+ /* isolate a page for migration */
+ bool (*isolate_page) (struct page *, isolate_mode_t);
  /* migrate the contents of a page to the specified target */
  int (*migratepage) (struct page *, struct page *);
+ /* put migration-failed page back to right list */
+ void (*putback_page) (struct page *);
  int (*launder_page) (struct page *);
+
  int (*is_partially_uptodate) (struct page *, unsigned long,
  unsigned long);
  void (*is_dirty_writeback) (struct page *, bool *, bool *);
@@ -747,6 +752,10 @@ struct address_space_operations {
         and transfer data directly between the storage and the
         application's address space.
 
+  isolate_page: Called by the VM when isolating a movable non-lru page.
+ If page is successfully isolated, VM marks the page as PG_isolated
+ via __SetPageIsolated.
+
   migrate_page:  This is used to compact the physical memory usage.
         If the VM wants to relocate a page (maybe off a memory card
         that is signalling imminent failure) it will pass a new page
@@ -754,6 +763,8 @@ struct address_space_operations {
  transfer any private data across and update any references
         that it has to the page.
 
+  putback_page: Called by the VM when isolated page's migration fails.
+
   launder_page: Called before freeing a page - it writes back the dirty page. To
    prevent redirtying the page, it is kept locked during the whole
  operation.
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/page_migration b/Documentation/vm/page_migration
index fea5c0864170..80e98af46e95 100644
--- a/Documentation/vm/page_migration
+++ b/Documentation/vm/page_migration
@@ -142,5 +142,110 @@ is increased so that the page cannot be freed while page migration occurs.
 20. The new page is moved to the LRU and can be scanned by the swapper
     etc again.
 
-Christoph Lameter, May 8, 2006.
+C. Non-LRU page migration
+-------------------------
+
+Although original migration aimed for reducing the latency of memory access
+for NUMA, compaction who want to create high-order page is also main customer.
+
+Current problem of the implementation is that it is designed to migrate only
+*LRU* pages. However, there are potential non-lru pages which can be migrated
+in drivers, for example, zsmalloc, virtio-balloon pages.
+
+For virtio-balloon pages, some parts of migration code path have been hooked
+up and added virtio-balloon specific functions to intercept migration logics.
+It's too specific to a driver so other drivers who want to make their pages
+movable would have to add own specific hooks in migration path.
+
+To overclome the problem, VM supports non-LRU page migration which provides
+generic functions for non-LRU movable pages without driver specific hooks
+migration path.
+
+If a driver want to make own pages movable, it should define three functions
+which are function pointers of struct address_space_operations.
+
+1. bool (*isolate_page) (struct page *page, isolate_mode_t mode);
+
+What VM expects on isolate_page function of driver is to return *true*
+if driver isolates page successfully. On returing true, VM marks the page
+as PG_isolated so concurrent isolation in several CPUs skip the page
+for isolation. If a driver cannot isolate the page, it should return *false*.
+
+Once page is successfully isolated, VM uses page.lru fields so driver
+shouldn't expect to preserve values in that fields.
+
+2. int (*migratepage) (struct address_space *mapping,
+ struct page *newpage, struct page *oldpage, enum migrate_mode);
+
+After isolation, VM calls migratepage of driver with isolated page.
+The function of migratepage is to move content of the old page to new page
+and set up fields of struct page newpage. Keep in mind that you should
+clear PG_movable of oldpage via __ClearPageMovable under page_lock if you
+migrated the oldpage successfully and returns 0.
+If driver cannot migrate the page at the moment, driver can return -EAGAIN.
+On -EAGAIN, VM will retry page migration in a short time because VM interprets
+-EAGAIN as "temporal migration failure". On returning any error except -EAGAIN,
+VM will give up the page migration without retrying in this time.
+
+Driver shouldn't touch page.lru field VM using in the functions.
+
+3. void (*putback_page)(struct page *);
+
+If migration fails on isolated page, VM should return the isolated page
+to the driver so VM calls driver's putback_page with migration failed page.
+In this function, driver should put the isolated page back to the own data
+structure.
 
+4. non-lru movable page flags
+
+There are two page flags for supporting non-lru movable page.
+
+* PG_movable
+
+Driver should use the below function to make page movable under page_lock.
+
+ void __SetPageMovable(struct page *page, struct address_space *mapping)
+
+It needs argument of address_space for registering migration family functions
+which will be called by VM. Exactly speaking, PG_movable is not a real flag of
+struct page. Rather than, VM reuses page->mapping's lower bits to represent it.
+
+ #define PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE 0x2
+ page->mapping = page->mapping | PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE;
+
+so driver shouldn't access page->mapping directly. Instead, driver should
+use page_mapping which mask off the low two bits of page->mapping so it can get
+right struct address_space.
+
+For testing of non-lru movable page, VM supports __PageMovable function.
+However, it doesn't guarantee to identify non-lru movable page because
+page->mapping field is unified with other variables in struct page.
+As well, if driver releases the page after isolation by VM, page->mapping
+doesn't have stable value although it has PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE
+(Look at __ClearPageMovable). But __PageMovable is cheap to catch whether
+page is LRU or non-lru movable once the page has been isolated. Because
+LRU pages never can have PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE in page->mapping. It is also
+good for just peeking to test non-lru movable pages before more expensive
+checking with lock_page in pfn scanning to select victim.
+
+For guaranteeing non-lru movable page, VM provides PageMovable function.
+Unlike __PageMovable, PageMovable functions validates page->mapping and
+mapping->a_ops->isolate_page under lock_page. The lock_page prevents sudden
+destroying of page->mapping.
+
+Driver using __SetPageMovable should clear the flag via __ClearMovablePage
+under page_lock before the releasing the page.
+
+* PG_isolated
+
+To prevent concurrent isolation among several CPUs, VM marks isolated page
+as PG_isolated under lock_page. So if a CPU encounters PG_isolated non-lru
+movable page, it can skip it. Driver doesn't need to manipulate the flag
+because VM will set/clear it automatically. Keep in mind that if driver
+sees PG_isolated page, it means the page have been isolated by VM so it
+shouldn't touch page.lru field.
+PG_isolated is alias with PG_reclaim flag so driver shouldn't use the flag
+for own purpose.
+
+Christoph Lameter, May 8, 2006.
+Minchan Kim, Mar 28, 2016.
diff --git a/include/linux/compaction.h b/include/linux/compaction.h
index a58c852a268f..c6b47c861cea 100644
--- a/include/linux/compaction.h
+++ b/include/linux/compaction.h
@@ -54,6 +54,9 @@ enum compact_result {
 struct alloc_context; /* in mm/internal.h */
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
+extern int PageMovable(struct page *page);
+extern void __SetPageMovable(struct page *page, struct address_space *mapping);
+extern void __ClearPageMovable(struct page *page);
 extern int sysctl_compact_memory;
 extern int sysctl_compaction_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
  void __user *buffer, size_t *length, loff_t *ppos);
@@ -151,6 +154,19 @@ extern void kcompactd_stop(int nid);
 extern void wakeup_kcompactd(pg_data_t *pgdat, int order, int classzone_idx);
 
 #else
+static inline int PageMovable(struct page *page)
+{
+ return 0;
+}
+static inline void __SetPageMovable(struct page *page,
+ struct address_space *mapping)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void __ClearPageMovable(struct page *page)
+{
+}
+
 static inline enum compact_result try_to_compact_pages(gfp_t gfp_mask,
  unsigned int order, int alloc_flags,
  const struct alloc_context *ac,
@@ -212,6 +228,7 @@ static inline void wakeup_kcompactd(pg_data_t *pgdat, int order, int classzone_i
 #endif /* CONFIG_COMPACTION */
 
 #if defined(CONFIG_COMPACTION) && defined(CONFIG_SYSFS) && defined(CONFIG_NUMA)
+struct node;
 extern int compaction_register_node(struct node *node);
 extern void compaction_unregister_node(struct node *node);
 
diff --git a/include/linux/fs.h b/include/linux/fs.h
index c9cc1f699dc1..6a2ce439ea42 100644
--- a/include/linux/fs.h
+++ b/include/linux/fs.h
@@ -402,6 +402,8 @@ struct address_space_operations {
  */
  int (*migratepage) (struct address_space *,
  struct page *, struct page *, enum migrate_mode);
+ bool (*isolate_page)(struct page *, isolate_mode_t);
+ void (*putback_page)(struct page *);
  int (*launder_page) (struct page *);
  int (*is_partially_uptodate) (struct page *, unsigned long,
  unsigned long);
diff --git a/include/linux/ksm.h b/include/linux/ksm.h
index 7ae216a39c9e..481c8c4627ca 100644
--- a/include/linux/ksm.h
+++ b/include/linux/ksm.h
@@ -43,8 +43,7 @@ static inline struct stable_node *page_stable_node(struct page *page)
 static inline void set_page_stable_node(struct page *page,
  struct stable_node *stable_node)
 {
- page->mapping = (void *)stable_node +
- (PAGE_MAPPING_ANON | PAGE_MAPPING_KSM);
+ page->mapping = (void *)((unsigned long)stable_node | PAGE_MAPPING_KSM);
 }
 
 /*
diff --git a/include/linux/migrate.h b/include/linux/migrate.h
index 9b50325e4ddf..404fbfefeb33 100644
--- a/include/linux/migrate.h
+++ b/include/linux/migrate.h
@@ -37,6 +37,8 @@ extern int migrate_page(struct address_space *,
  struct page *, struct page *, enum migrate_mode);
 extern int migrate_pages(struct list_head *l, new_page_t new, free_page_t free,
  unsigned long private, enum migrate_mode mode, int reason);
+extern bool isolate_movable_page(struct page *page, isolate_mode_t mode);
+extern void putback_movable_page(struct page *page);
 
 extern int migrate_prep(void);
 extern int migrate_prep_local(void);
diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index a00ec816233a..33eaec57e997 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -1035,6 +1035,7 @@ static inline pgoff_t page_file_index(struct page *page)
 }
 
 bool page_mapped(struct page *page);
+struct address_space *page_mapping(struct page *page);
 
 /*
  * Return true only if the page has been allocated with
diff --git a/include/linux/page-flags.h b/include/linux/page-flags.h
index e5a32445f930..f8a2c4881608 100644
--- a/include/linux/page-flags.h
+++ b/include/linux/page-flags.h
@@ -129,6 +129,9 @@ enum pageflags {
 
  /* Compound pages. Stored in first tail page's flags */
  PG_double_map = PG_private_2,
+
+ /* non-lru isolated movable page */
+ PG_isolated = PG_reclaim,
 };
 
 #ifndef __GENERATING_BOUNDS_H
@@ -357,29 +360,37 @@ PAGEFLAG(Idle, idle, PF_ANY)
  * with the PAGE_MAPPING_ANON bit set to distinguish it.  See rmap.h.
  *
  * On an anonymous page in a VM_MERGEABLE area, if CONFIG_KSM is enabled,
- * the PAGE_MAPPING_KSM bit may be set along with the PAGE_MAPPING_ANON bit;
- * and then page->mapping points, not to an anon_vma, but to a private
+ * the PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE bit may be set along with the PAGE_MAPPING_ANON
+ * bit; and then page->mapping points, not to an anon_vma, but to a private
  * structure which KSM associates with that merged page.  See ksm.h.
  *
- * PAGE_MAPPING_KSM without PAGE_MAPPING_ANON is currently never used.
+ * PAGE_MAPPING_KSM without PAGE_MAPPING_ANON is used for non-lru movable
+ * page and then page->mapping points a struct address_space.
  *
  * Please note that, confusingly, "page_mapping" refers to the inode
  * address_space which maps the page from disk; whereas "page_mapped"
  * refers to user virtual address space into which the page is mapped.
  */
-#define PAGE_MAPPING_ANON 1
-#define PAGE_MAPPING_KSM 2
-#define PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS (PAGE_MAPPING_ANON | PAGE_MAPPING_KSM)
+#define PAGE_MAPPING_ANON 0x1
+#define PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE 0x2
+#define PAGE_MAPPING_KSM (PAGE_MAPPING_ANON | PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE)
+#define PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS (PAGE_MAPPING_ANON | PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE)
 
-static __always_inline int PageAnonHead(struct page *page)
+static __always_inline int PageMappingFlag(struct page *page)
 {
- return ((unsigned long)page->mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_ANON) != 0;
+ return ((unsigned long)page->mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS) != 0;
 }
 
 static __always_inline int PageAnon(struct page *page)
 {
  page = compound_head(page);
- return PageAnonHead(page);
+ return ((unsigned long)page->mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_ANON) != 0;
+}
+
+static __always_inline int __PageMovable(struct page *page)
+{
+ return ((unsigned long)page->mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS) ==
+ PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE;
 }
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_KSM
@@ -393,7 +404,7 @@ static __always_inline int PageKsm(struct page *page)
 {
  page = compound_head(page);
  return ((unsigned long)page->mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS) ==
- (PAGE_MAPPING_ANON | PAGE_MAPPING_KSM);
+ PAGE_MAPPING_KSM;
 }
 #else
 TESTPAGEFLAG_FALSE(Ksm)
@@ -641,6 +652,8 @@ static inline void __ClearPageBalloon(struct page *page)
  atomic_set(&page->_mapcount, -1);
 }
 
+__PAGEFLAG(Isolated, isolated, PF_ANY);
+
 /*
  * If network-based swap is enabled, sl*b must keep track of whether pages
  * were allocated from pfmemalloc reserves.
diff --git a/mm/compaction.c b/mm/compaction.c
index 1427366ad673..2d6862d0df60 100644
--- a/mm/compaction.c
+++ b/mm/compaction.c
@@ -81,6 +81,41 @@ static inline bool migrate_async_suitable(int migratetype)
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
 
+int PageMovable(struct page *page)
+{
+ struct address_space *mapping;
+
+ WARN_ON(!PageLocked(page));
+ if (!__PageMovable(page))
+ goto out;
+
+ mapping = page_mapping(page);
+ if (mapping && mapping->a_ops && mapping->a_ops->isolate_page)
+ return 1;
+out:
+ return 0;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(PageMovable);
+
+void __SetPageMovable(struct page *page, struct address_space *mapping)
+{
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE((unsigned long)mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE, page);
+ page->mapping = (void *)((unsigned long)mapping | PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__SetPageMovable);
+
+void __ClearPageMovable(struct page *page)
+{
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageMovable(page), page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!((unsigned long)page->mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE),
+ page);
+ page->mapping = (void *)((unsigned long)page->mapping &
+ PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__ClearPageMovable);
+
 /* Do not skip compaction more than 64 times */
 #define COMPACT_MAX_DEFER_SHIFT 6
 
@@ -735,21 +770,6 @@ isolate_migratepages_block(struct compact_control *cc, unsigned long low_pfn,
  }
 
  /*
- * Check may be lockless but that's ok as we recheck later.
- * It's possible to migrate LRU pages and balloon pages
- * Skip any other type of page
- */
- is_lru = PageLRU(page);
- if (!is_lru) {
- if (unlikely(balloon_page_movable(page))) {
- if (balloon_page_isolate(page)) {
- /* Successfully isolated */
- goto isolate_success;
- }
- }
- }
-
- /*
  * Regardless of being on LRU, compound pages such as THP and
  * hugetlbfs are not to be compacted. We can potentially save
  * a lot of iterations if we skip them at once. The check is
@@ -765,8 +785,38 @@ isolate_migratepages_block(struct compact_control *cc, unsigned long low_pfn,
  goto isolate_fail;
  }
 
- if (!is_lru)
+ /*
+ * Check may be lockless but that's ok as we recheck later.
+ * It's possible to migrate LRU and non-lru movable pages.
+ * Skip any other type of page
+ */
+ is_lru = PageLRU(page);
+ if (!is_lru) {
+ if (unlikely(balloon_page_movable(page))) {
+ if (balloon_page_isolate(page)) {
+ /* Successfully isolated */
+ goto isolate_success;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * __PageMovable can return false positive so we need
+ * to verify it under page_lock.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(__PageMovable(page)) &&
+ !PageIsolated(page)) {
+ if (locked) {
+ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&zone->lru_lock,
+ flags);
+ locked = false;
+ }
+
+ if (isolate_movable_page(page, isolate_mode))
+ goto isolate_success;
+ }
+
  goto isolate_fail;
+ }
 
  /*
  * Migration will fail if an anonymous page is pinned in memory,
diff --git a/mm/ksm.c b/mm/ksm.c
index 4786b4150f62..35b8aef867a9 100644
--- a/mm/ksm.c
+++ b/mm/ksm.c
@@ -532,8 +532,8 @@ static struct page *get_ksm_page(struct stable_node *stable_node, bool lock_it)
  void *expected_mapping;
  unsigned long kpfn;
 
- expected_mapping = (void *)stable_node +
- (PAGE_MAPPING_ANON | PAGE_MAPPING_KSM);
+ expected_mapping = (void *)((unsigned long)stable_node |
+ PAGE_MAPPING_KSM);
 again:
  kpfn = READ_ONCE(stable_node->kpfn);
  page = pfn_to_page(kpfn);
diff --git a/mm/migrate.c b/mm/migrate.c
index 2666f28b5236..57559ca7c904 100644
--- a/mm/migrate.c
+++ b/mm/migrate.c
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@
 #include <linux/vmalloc.h>
 #include <linux/security.h>
 #include <linux/backing-dev.h>
+#include <linux/compaction.h>
 #include <linux/syscalls.h>
 #include <linux/hugetlb.h>
 #include <linux/hugetlb_cgroup.h>
@@ -73,6 +74,79 @@ int migrate_prep_local(void)
  return 0;
 }
 
+bool isolate_movable_page(struct page *page, isolate_mode_t mode)
+{
+ struct address_space *mapping;
+
+ /*
+ * Avoid burning cycles with pages that are yet under __free_pages(),
+ * or just got freed under us.
+ *
+ * In case we 'win' a race for a movable page being freed under us and
+ * raise its refcount preventing __free_pages() from doing its job
+ * the put_page() at the end of this block will take care of
+ * release this page, thus avoiding a nasty leakage.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(!get_page_unless_zero(page)))
+ goto out;
+
+ /*
+ * Check PageMovable before holding a PG_lock because page's owner
+ * assumes anybody doesn't touch PG_lock of newly allocated page
+ * so unconditionally grapping the lock ruins page's owner side.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(!__PageMovable(page)))
+ goto out_putpage;
+ /*
+ * As movable pages are not isolated from LRU lists, concurrent
+ * compaction threads can race against page migration functions
+ * as well as race against the releasing a page.
+ *
+ * In order to avoid having an already isolated movable page
+ * being (wrongly) re-isolated while it is under migration,
+ * or to avoid attempting to isolate pages being released,
+ * lets be sure we have the page lock
+ * before proceeding with the movable page isolation steps.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(!trylock_page(page)))
+ goto out_putpage;
+
+ if (!PageMovable(page) || PageIsolated(page))
+ goto out_no_isolated;
+
+ mapping = page_mapping(page);
+ if (!mapping->a_ops->isolate_page(page, mode))
+ goto out_no_isolated;
+
+ /* Driver shouldn't use PG_isolated bit of page->flags */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(PageIsolated(page));
+ __SetPageIsolated(page);
+ unlock_page(page);
+
+ return true;
+
+out_no_isolated:
+ unlock_page(page);
+out_putpage:
+ put_page(page);
+out:
+ return false;
+}
+
+/* It should be called on page which is PG_movable */
+void putback_movable_page(struct page *page)
+{
+ struct address_space *mapping;
+
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageMovable(page), page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageIsolated(page), page);
+
+ mapping = page_mapping(page);
+ mapping->a_ops->putback_page(page);
+ __ClearPageIsolated(page);
+}
+
 /*
  * Put previously isolated pages back onto the appropriate lists
  * from where they were once taken off for compaction/migration.
@@ -94,10 +168,25 @@ void putback_movable_pages(struct list_head *l)
  list_del(&page->lru);
  dec_zone_page_state(page, NR_ISOLATED_ANON +
  page_is_file_cache(page));
- if (unlikely(isolated_balloon_page(page)))
+ if (unlikely(isolated_balloon_page(page))) {
  balloon_page_putback(page);
- else
+ /*
+ * We isolated non-lru movable page so here we can use
+ * __PageMovable because LRU page's mapping cannot have
+ * PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE.
+ */
+ } else if (unlikely(__PageMovable(page))) {
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageIsolated(page), page);
+ lock_page(page);
+ if (PageMovable(page))
+ putback_movable_page(page);
+ else
+ __ClearPageIsolated(page);
+ unlock_page(page);
+ put_page(page);
+ } else {
  putback_lru_page(page);
+ }
  }
 }
 
@@ -592,7 +681,7 @@ void migrate_page_copy(struct page *newpage, struct page *page)
  ***********************************************************/
 
 /*
- * Common logic to directly migrate a single page suitable for
+ * Common logic to directly migrate a single LRU page suitable for
  * pages that do not use PagePrivate/PagePrivate2.
  *
  * Pages are locked upon entry and exit.
@@ -755,33 +844,69 @@ static int move_to_new_page(struct page *newpage, struct page *page,
  enum migrate_mode mode)
 {
  struct address_space *mapping;
- int rc;
+ int rc = -EAGAIN;
+ bool is_lru = !__PageMovable(page);
 
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(newpage), newpage);
 
  mapping = page_mapping(page);
- if (!mapping)
- rc = migrate_page(mapping, newpage, page, mode);
- else if (mapping->a_ops->migratepage)
- /*
- * Most pages have a mapping and most filesystems provide a
- * migratepage callback. Anonymous pages are part of swap
- * space which also has its own migratepage callback. This
- * is the most common path for page migration.
- */
- rc = mapping->a_ops->migratepage(mapping, newpage, page, mode);
- else
- rc = fallback_migrate_page(mapping, newpage, page, mode);
+ /*
+ * In case of non-lru page, it could be released after
+ * isolation step. In that case, we shouldn't try
+ * fallback migration which is designed for LRU pages.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(!is_lru)) {
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageIsolated(page), page);
+ if (!PageMovable(page)) {
+ rc = MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS;
+ __ClearPageIsolated(page);
+ goto out;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (likely(is_lru)) {
+ if (!mapping)
+ rc = migrate_page(mapping, newpage, page, mode);
+ else if (mapping->a_ops->migratepage)
+ /*
+ * Most pages have a mapping and most filesystems
+ * provide a migratepage callback. Anonymous pages
+ * are part of swap space which also has its own
+ * migratepage callback. This is the most common path
+ * for page migration.
+ */
+ rc = mapping->a_ops->migratepage(mapping, newpage,
+ page, mode);
+ else
+ rc = fallback_migrate_page(mapping, newpage,
+ page, mode);
+ } else {
+ rc = mapping->a_ops->migratepage(mapping, newpage,
+ page, mode);
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS &&
+ !PageIsolated(page));
+ }
 
  /*
  * When successful, old pagecache page->mapping must be cleared before
  * page is freed; but stats require that PageAnon be left as PageAnon.
  */
  if (rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS) {
- if (!PageAnon(page))
+ if (__PageMovable(page)) {
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageIsolated(page), page);
+
+ /*
+ * We clear PG_movable under page_lock so any compactor
+ * cannot try to migrate this page.
+ */
+ __ClearPageIsolated(page);
+ }
+
+ if (!((unsigned long)page->mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS))
  page->mapping = NULL;
  }
+out:
  return rc;
 }
 
@@ -791,6 +916,7 @@ static int __unmap_and_move(struct page *page, struct page *newpage,
  int rc = -EAGAIN;
  int page_was_mapped = 0;
  struct anon_vma *anon_vma = NULL;
+ bool is_lru = !__PageMovable(page);
 
  if (!trylock_page(page)) {
  if (!force || mode == MIGRATE_ASYNC)
@@ -871,6 +997,11 @@ static int __unmap_and_move(struct page *page, struct page *newpage,
  goto out_unlock_both;
  }
 
+ if (unlikely(!is_lru)) {
+ rc = move_to_new_page(newpage, page, mode);
+ goto out_unlock_both;
+ }
+
  /*
  * Corner case handling:
  * 1. When a new swap-cache page is read into, it is added to the LRU
@@ -920,7 +1051,8 @@ static int __unmap_and_move(struct page *page, struct page *newpage,
  * list in here.
  */
  if (rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS) {
- if (unlikely(__is_movable_balloon_page(newpage)))
+ if (unlikely(__is_movable_balloon_page(newpage) ||
+ __PageMovable(newpage)))
  put_page(newpage);
  else
  putback_lru_page(newpage);
@@ -961,6 +1093,12 @@ static ICE_noinline int unmap_and_move(new_page_t get_new_page,
  /* page was freed from under us. So we are done. */
  ClearPageActive(page);
  ClearPageUnevictable(page);
+ if (unlikely(__PageMovable(page))) {
+ lock_page(page);
+ if (!PageMovable(page))
+ __ClearPageIsolated(page);
+ unlock_page(page);
+ }
  if (put_new_page)
  put_new_page(newpage, private);
  else
@@ -1010,8 +1148,21 @@ static ICE_noinline int unmap_and_move(new_page_t get_new_page,
  num_poisoned_pages_inc();
  }
  } else {
- if (rc != -EAGAIN)
- putback_lru_page(page);
+ if (rc != -EAGAIN) {
+ if (likely(!__PageMovable(page))) {
+ putback_lru_page(page);
+ goto put_new;
+ }
+
+ lock_page(page);
+ if (PageMovable(page))
+ putback_movable_page(page);
+ else
+ __ClearPageIsolated(page);
+ unlock_page(page);
+ put_page(page);
+ }
+put_new:
  if (put_new_page)
  put_new_page(newpage, private);
  else
diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index f8f3bfc435ee..26868bbaecce 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -1008,7 +1008,7 @@ static __always_inline bool free_pages_prepare(struct page *page,
  (page + i)->flags &= ~PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_PREP;
  }
  }
- if (PageAnonHead(page))
+ if (PageMappingFlag(page))
  page->mapping = NULL;
  if (check_free)
  bad += free_pages_check(page);
diff --git a/mm/util.c b/mm/util.c
index 224d36e43a94..a04ccff7cc17 100644
--- a/mm/util.c
+++ b/mm/util.c
@@ -399,10 +399,12 @@ struct address_space *page_mapping(struct page *page)
  }
 
  mapping = page->mapping;
- if ((unsigned long)mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS)
+ if ((unsigned long)mapping & PAGE_MAPPING_ANON)
  return NULL;
- return mapping;
+
+ return (void *)((unsigned long)mapping & ~PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS);
 }
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(page_mapping);
 
 /* Slow path of page_mapcount() for compound pages */
 int __page_mapcount(struct page *page)
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 03/12] mm: balloon: use general non-lru movable page feature

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
Now, VM has a feature to migrate non-lru movable pages so
balloon doesn't need custom migration hooks in migrate.c
and compaction.c. Instead, this patch implements
page->mapping->a_ops->{isolate|migrate|putback} functions.

With that, we could remove hooks for ballooning in general
migration functions and make balloon compaction simple.

Cc: [hidden email]
Cc: Rafael Aquini <[hidden email]>
Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Gioh Kim <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 drivers/virtio/virtio_balloon.c    | 54 +++++++++++++++++++---
 include/linux/balloon_compaction.h | 53 +++++++--------------
 include/uapi/linux/magic.h         |  1 +
 mm/balloon_compaction.c            | 94 +++++++-------------------------------
 mm/compaction.c                    |  7 ---
 mm/migrate.c                       | 19 +-------
 mm/vmscan.c                        |  2 +-
 7 files changed, 85 insertions(+), 145 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/virtio/virtio_balloon.c b/drivers/virtio/virtio_balloon.c
index 476c0e3a7150..88d5609375de 100644
--- a/drivers/virtio/virtio_balloon.c
+++ b/drivers/virtio/virtio_balloon.c
@@ -30,6 +30,7 @@
 #include <linux/oom.h>
 #include <linux/wait.h>
 #include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/mount.h>
 
 /*
  * Balloon device works in 4K page units.  So each page is pointed to by
@@ -45,6 +46,10 @@ static int oom_pages = OOM_VBALLOON_DEFAULT_PAGES;
 module_param(oom_pages, int, S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
 MODULE_PARM_DESC(oom_pages, "pages to free on OOM");
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_BALLOON_COMPACTION
+static struct vfsmount *balloon_mnt;
+#endif
+
 struct virtio_balloon {
  struct virtio_device *vdev;
  struct virtqueue *inflate_vq, *deflate_vq, *stats_vq;
@@ -488,8 +493,26 @@ static int virtballoon_migratepage(struct balloon_dev_info *vb_dev_info,
 
  put_page(page); /* balloon reference */
 
- return MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS;
+ return 0;
 }
+
+static struct dentry *balloon_mount(struct file_system_type *fs_type,
+ int flags, const char *dev_name, void *data)
+{
+ static const struct dentry_operations ops = {
+ .d_dname = simple_dname,
+ };
+
+ return mount_pseudo(fs_type, "balloon-kvm:", NULL, &ops,
+ BALLOON_KVM_MAGIC);
+}
+
+static struct file_system_type balloon_fs = {
+ .name           = "balloon-kvm",
+ .mount          = balloon_mount,
+ .kill_sb        = kill_anon_super,
+};
+
 #endif /* CONFIG_BALLOON_COMPACTION */
 
 static int virtballoon_probe(struct virtio_device *vdev)
@@ -519,9 +542,6 @@ static int virtballoon_probe(struct virtio_device *vdev)
  vb->vdev = vdev;
 
  balloon_devinfo_init(&vb->vb_dev_info);
-#ifdef CONFIG_BALLOON_COMPACTION
- vb->vb_dev_info.migratepage = virtballoon_migratepage;
-#endif
 
  err = init_vqs(vb);
  if (err)
@@ -531,13 +551,33 @@ static int virtballoon_probe(struct virtio_device *vdev)
  vb->nb.priority = VIRTBALLOON_OOM_NOTIFY_PRIORITY;
  err = register_oom_notifier(&vb->nb);
  if (err < 0)
- goto out_oom_notify;
+ goto out_del_vqs;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_BALLOON_COMPACTION
+ balloon_mnt = kern_mount(&balloon_fs);
+ if (IS_ERR(balloon_mnt)) {
+ err = PTR_ERR(balloon_mnt);
+ unregister_oom_notifier(&vb->nb);
+ goto out_del_vqs;
+ }
+
+ vb->vb_dev_info.migratepage = virtballoon_migratepage;
+ vb->vb_dev_info.inode = alloc_anon_inode(balloon_mnt->mnt_sb);
+ if (IS_ERR(vb->vb_dev_info.inode)) {
+ err = PTR_ERR(vb->vb_dev_info.inode);
+ kern_unmount(balloon_mnt);
+ unregister_oom_notifier(&vb->nb);
+ vb->vb_dev_info.inode = NULL;
+ goto out_del_vqs;
+ }
+ vb->vb_dev_info.inode->i_mapping->a_ops = &balloon_aops;
+#endif
 
  virtio_device_ready(vdev);
 
  return 0;
 
-out_oom_notify:
+out_del_vqs:
  vdev->config->del_vqs(vdev);
 out_free_vb:
  kfree(vb);
@@ -571,6 +611,8 @@ static void virtballoon_remove(struct virtio_device *vdev)
  cancel_work_sync(&vb->update_balloon_stats_work);
 
  remove_common(vb);
+ if (vb->vb_dev_info.inode)
+ iput(vb->vb_dev_info.inode);
  kfree(vb);
 }
 
diff --git a/include/linux/balloon_compaction.h b/include/linux/balloon_compaction.h
index 9b0a15d06a4f..c0c430d06a9b 100644
--- a/include/linux/balloon_compaction.h
+++ b/include/linux/balloon_compaction.h
@@ -45,9 +45,10 @@
 #define _LINUX_BALLOON_COMPACTION_H
 #include <linux/pagemap.h>
 #include <linux/page-flags.h>
-#include <linux/migrate.h>
+#include <linux/compaction.h>
 #include <linux/gfp.h>
 #include <linux/err.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
 
 /*
  * Balloon device information descriptor.
@@ -62,6 +63,7 @@ struct balloon_dev_info {
  struct list_head pages; /* Pages enqueued & handled to Host */
  int (*migratepage)(struct balloon_dev_info *, struct page *newpage,
  struct page *page, enum migrate_mode mode);
+ struct inode *inode;
 };
 
 extern struct page *balloon_page_enqueue(struct balloon_dev_info *b_dev_info);
@@ -73,45 +75,19 @@ static inline void balloon_devinfo_init(struct balloon_dev_info *balloon)
  spin_lock_init(&balloon->pages_lock);
  INIT_LIST_HEAD(&balloon->pages);
  balloon->migratepage = NULL;
+ balloon->inode = NULL;
 }
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_BALLOON_COMPACTION
-extern bool balloon_page_isolate(struct page *page);
+extern const struct address_space_operations balloon_aops;
+extern bool balloon_page_isolate(struct page *page,
+ isolate_mode_t mode);
 extern void balloon_page_putback(struct page *page);
-extern int balloon_page_migrate(struct page *newpage,
+extern int balloon_page_migrate(struct address_space *mapping,
+ struct page *newpage,
  struct page *page, enum migrate_mode mode);
 
 /*
- * __is_movable_balloon_page - helper to perform @page PageBalloon tests
- */
-static inline bool __is_movable_balloon_page(struct page *page)
-{
- return PageBalloon(page);
-}
-
-/*
- * balloon_page_movable - test PageBalloon to identify balloon pages
- *  and PagePrivate to check that the page is not
- *  isolated and can be moved by compaction/migration.
- *
- * As we might return false positives in the case of a balloon page being just
- * released under us, this need to be re-tested later, under the page lock.
- */
-static inline bool balloon_page_movable(struct page *page)
-{
- return PageBalloon(page) && PagePrivate(page);
-}
-
-/*
- * isolated_balloon_page - identify an isolated balloon page on private
- *   compaction/migration page lists.
- */
-static inline bool isolated_balloon_page(struct page *page)
-{
- return PageBalloon(page);
-}
-
-/*
  * balloon_page_insert - insert a page into the balloon's page list and make
  * the page->private assignment accordingly.
  * @balloon : pointer to balloon device
@@ -124,7 +100,7 @@ static inline void balloon_page_insert(struct balloon_dev_info *balloon,
        struct page *page)
 {
  __SetPageBalloon(page);
- SetPagePrivate(page);
+ __SetPageMovable(page, balloon->inode->i_mapping);
  set_page_private(page, (unsigned long)balloon);
  list_add(&page->lru, &balloon->pages);
 }
@@ -140,11 +116,14 @@ static inline void balloon_page_insert(struct balloon_dev_info *balloon,
 static inline void balloon_page_delete(struct page *page)
 {
  __ClearPageBalloon(page);
+ __ClearPageMovable(page);
  set_page_private(page, 0);
- if (PagePrivate(page)) {
- ClearPagePrivate(page);
+ /*
+ * No touch page.lru field once @page has been isolated
+ * because VM is using the field.
+ */
+ if (!PageIsolated(page))
  list_del(&page->lru);
- }
 }
 
 /*
diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/magic.h b/include/uapi/linux/magic.h
index 546b38886e11..d829ce63529d 100644
--- a/include/uapi/linux/magic.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/magic.h
@@ -80,5 +80,6 @@
 #define BPF_FS_MAGIC 0xcafe4a11
 /* Since UDF 2.01 is ISO 13346 based... */
 #define UDF_SUPER_MAGIC 0x15013346
+#define BALLOON_KVM_MAGIC 0x13661366
 
 #endif /* __LINUX_MAGIC_H__ */
diff --git a/mm/balloon_compaction.c b/mm/balloon_compaction.c
index 57b3e9bd6bc5..da91df50ba31 100644
--- a/mm/balloon_compaction.c
+++ b/mm/balloon_compaction.c
@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@ struct page *balloon_page_dequeue(struct balloon_dev_info *b_dev_info)
  */
  if (trylock_page(page)) {
 #ifdef CONFIG_BALLOON_COMPACTION
- if (!PagePrivate(page)) {
+ if (PageIsolated(page)) {
  /* raced with isolation */
  unlock_page(page);
  continue;
@@ -106,110 +106,50 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(balloon_page_dequeue);
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_BALLOON_COMPACTION
 
-static inline void __isolate_balloon_page(struct page *page)
+bool balloon_page_isolate(struct page *page, isolate_mode_t mode)
+
 {
  struct balloon_dev_info *b_dev_info = balloon_page_device(page);
  unsigned long flags;
 
  spin_lock_irqsave(&b_dev_info->pages_lock, flags);
- ClearPagePrivate(page);
  list_del(&page->lru);
  b_dev_info->isolated_pages++;
  spin_unlock_irqrestore(&b_dev_info->pages_lock, flags);
+
+ return true;
 }
 
-static inline void __putback_balloon_page(struct page *page)
+void balloon_page_putback(struct page *page)
 {
  struct balloon_dev_info *b_dev_info = balloon_page_device(page);
  unsigned long flags;
 
  spin_lock_irqsave(&b_dev_info->pages_lock, flags);
- SetPagePrivate(page);
  list_add(&page->lru, &b_dev_info->pages);
  b_dev_info->isolated_pages--;
  spin_unlock_irqrestore(&b_dev_info->pages_lock, flags);
 }
 
-/* __isolate_lru_page() counterpart for a ballooned page */
-bool balloon_page_isolate(struct page *page)
-{
- /*
- * Avoid burning cycles with pages that are yet under __free_pages(),
- * or just got freed under us.
- *
- * In case we 'win' a race for a balloon page being freed under us and
- * raise its refcount preventing __free_pages() from doing its job
- * the put_page() at the end of this block will take care of
- * release this page, thus avoiding a nasty leakage.
- */
- if (likely(get_page_unless_zero(page))) {
- /*
- * As balloon pages are not isolated from LRU lists, concurrent
- * compaction threads can race against page migration functions
- * as well as race against the balloon driver releasing a page.
- *
- * In order to avoid having an already isolated balloon page
- * being (wrongly) re-isolated while it is under migration,
- * or to avoid attempting to isolate pages being released by
- * the balloon driver, lets be sure we have the page lock
- * before proceeding with the balloon page isolation steps.
- */
- if (likely(trylock_page(page))) {
- /*
- * A ballooned page, by default, has PagePrivate set.
- * Prevent concurrent compaction threads from isolating
- * an already isolated balloon page by clearing it.
- */
- if (balloon_page_movable(page)) {
- __isolate_balloon_page(page);
- unlock_page(page);
- return true;
- }
- unlock_page(page);
- }
- put_page(page);
- }
- return false;
-}
-
-/* putback_lru_page() counterpart for a ballooned page */
-void balloon_page_putback(struct page *page)
-{
- /*
- * 'lock_page()' stabilizes the page and prevents races against
- * concurrent isolation threads attempting to re-isolate it.
- */
- lock_page(page);
-
- if (__is_movable_balloon_page(page)) {
- __putback_balloon_page(page);
- /* drop the extra ref count taken for page isolation */
- put_page(page);
- } else {
- WARN_ON(1);
- dump_page(page, "not movable balloon page");
- }
- unlock_page(page);
-}
 
 /* move_to_new_page() counterpart for a ballooned page */
-int balloon_page_migrate(struct page *newpage,
- struct page *page, enum migrate_mode mode)
+int balloon_page_migrate(struct address_space *mapping,
+ struct page *newpage, struct page *page,
+ enum migrate_mode mode)
 {
  struct balloon_dev_info *balloon = balloon_page_device(page);
- int rc = -EAGAIN;
 
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(newpage), newpage);
 
- if (WARN_ON(!__is_movable_balloon_page(page))) {
- dump_page(page, "not movable balloon page");
- return rc;
- }
+ return balloon->migratepage(balloon, newpage, page, mode);
+}
 
- if (balloon && balloon->migratepage)
- rc = balloon->migratepage(balloon, newpage, page, mode);
+const struct address_space_operations balloon_aops = {
+ .migratepage = balloon_page_migrate,
+ .isolate_page = balloon_page_isolate,
+ .putback_page = balloon_page_putback,
+};
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(balloon_aops);
 
- return rc;
-}
 #endif /* CONFIG_BALLOON_COMPACTION */
diff --git a/mm/compaction.c b/mm/compaction.c
index 2d6862d0df60..95877987b3c5 100644
--- a/mm/compaction.c
+++ b/mm/compaction.c
@@ -792,13 +792,6 @@ isolate_migratepages_block(struct compact_control *cc, unsigned long low_pfn,
  */
  is_lru = PageLRU(page);
  if (!is_lru) {
- if (unlikely(balloon_page_movable(page))) {
- if (balloon_page_isolate(page)) {
- /* Successfully isolated */
- goto isolate_success;
- }
- }
-
  /*
  * __PageMovable can return false positive so we need
  * to verify it under page_lock.
diff --git a/mm/migrate.c b/mm/migrate.c
index 57559ca7c904..d1b3acf9b9a9 100644
--- a/mm/migrate.c
+++ b/mm/migrate.c
@@ -168,14 +168,12 @@ void putback_movable_pages(struct list_head *l)
  list_del(&page->lru);
  dec_zone_page_state(page, NR_ISOLATED_ANON +
  page_is_file_cache(page));
- if (unlikely(isolated_balloon_page(page))) {
- balloon_page_putback(page);
  /*
  * We isolated non-lru movable page so here we can use
  * __PageMovable because LRU page's mapping cannot have
  * PAGE_MAPPING_MOVABLE.
  */
- } else if (unlikely(__PageMovable(page))) {
+ if (unlikely(__PageMovable(page))) {
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageIsolated(page), page);
  lock_page(page);
  if (PageMovable(page))
@@ -985,18 +983,6 @@ static int __unmap_and_move(struct page *page, struct page *newpage,
  if (unlikely(!trylock_page(newpage)))
  goto out_unlock;
 
- if (unlikely(isolated_balloon_page(page))) {
- /*
- * A ballooned page does not need any special attention from
- * physical to virtual reverse mapping procedures.
- * Skip any attempt to unmap PTEs or to remap swap cache,
- * in order to avoid burning cycles at rmap level, and perform
- * the page migration right away (proteced by page lock).
- */
- rc = balloon_page_migrate(newpage, page, mode);
- goto out_unlock_both;
- }
-
  if (unlikely(!is_lru)) {
  rc = move_to_new_page(newpage, page, mode);
  goto out_unlock_both;
@@ -1051,8 +1037,7 @@ static int __unmap_and_move(struct page *page, struct page *newpage,
  * list in here.
  */
  if (rc == MIGRATEPAGE_SUCCESS) {
- if (unlikely(__is_movable_balloon_page(newpage) ||
- __PageMovable(newpage)))
+ if (unlikely(__PageMovable(newpage)))
  put_page(newpage);
  else
  putback_lru_page(newpage);
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index c4a2f4512fca..93ba33789ac6 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -1254,7 +1254,7 @@ unsigned long reclaim_clean_pages_from_list(struct zone *zone,
 
  list_for_each_entry_safe(page, next, page_list, lru) {
  if (page_is_file_cache(page) && !PageDirty(page) &&
-    !isolated_balloon_page(page)) {
+    !__PageMovable(page)) {
  ClearPageActive(page);
  list_move(&page->lru, &clean_pages);
  }
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 04/12] zsmalloc: keep max_object in size_class

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
Every zspage in a size_class has same number of max objects so
we could move it to a size_class.

Reviewed-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 mm/zsmalloc.c | 32 +++++++++++++++-----------------
 1 file changed, 15 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/zsmalloc.c b/mm/zsmalloc.c
index 72698db958e7..73a1eb4ffddf 100644
--- a/mm/zsmalloc.c
+++ b/mm/zsmalloc.c
@@ -32,8 +32,6 @@
  * page->freelist: points to the first free object in zspage.
  * Free objects are linked together using in-place
  * metadata.
- * page->objects: maximum number of objects we can store in this
- * zspage (class->zspage_order * PAGE_SIZE / class->size)
  * page->lru: links together first pages of various zspages.
  * Basically forming list of zspages in a fullness group.
  * page->mapping: class index and fullness group of the zspage
@@ -211,6 +209,7 @@ struct size_class {
  * of ZS_ALIGN.
  */
  int size;
+ int objs_per_zspage;
  unsigned int index;
 
  struct zs_size_stat stats;
@@ -627,21 +626,22 @@ static inline void zs_pool_stat_destroy(struct zs_pool *pool)
  * the pool (not yet implemented). This function returns fullness
  * status of the given page.
  */
-static enum fullness_group get_fullness_group(struct page *first_page)
+static enum fullness_group get_fullness_group(struct size_class *class,
+ struct page *first_page)
 {
- int inuse, max_objects;
+ int inuse, objs_per_zspage;
  enum fullness_group fg;
 
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
 
  inuse = first_page->inuse;
- max_objects = first_page->objects;
+ objs_per_zspage = class->objs_per_zspage;
 
  if (inuse == 0)
  fg = ZS_EMPTY;
- else if (inuse == max_objects)
+ else if (inuse == objs_per_zspage)
  fg = ZS_FULL;
- else if (inuse <= 3 * max_objects / fullness_threshold_frac)
+ else if (inuse <= 3 * objs_per_zspage / fullness_threshold_frac)
  fg = ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY;
  else
  fg = ZS_ALMOST_FULL;
@@ -728,7 +728,7 @@ static enum fullness_group fix_fullness_group(struct size_class *class,
  enum fullness_group currfg, newfg;
 
  get_zspage_mapping(first_page, &class_idx, &currfg);
- newfg = get_fullness_group(first_page);
+ newfg = get_fullness_group(class, first_page);
  if (newfg == currfg)
  goto out;
 
@@ -1008,9 +1008,6 @@ static struct page *alloc_zspage(struct size_class *class, gfp_t flags)
  init_zspage(class, first_page);
 
  first_page->freelist = location_to_obj(first_page, 0);
- /* Maximum number of objects we can store in this zspage */
- first_page->objects = class->pages_per_zspage * PAGE_SIZE / class->size;
-
  error = 0; /* Success */
 
 cleanup:
@@ -1238,11 +1235,11 @@ static bool can_merge(struct size_class *prev, int size, int pages_per_zspage)
  return true;
 }
 
-static bool zspage_full(struct page *first_page)
+static bool zspage_full(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
 {
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
 
- return first_page->inuse == first_page->objects;
+ return first_page->inuse == class->objs_per_zspage;
 }
 
 unsigned long zs_get_total_pages(struct zs_pool *pool)
@@ -1628,7 +1625,7 @@ static int migrate_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class,
  }
 
  /* Stop if there is no more space */
- if (zspage_full(d_page)) {
+ if (zspage_full(class, d_page)) {
  unpin_tag(handle);
  ret = -ENOMEM;
  break;
@@ -1687,7 +1684,7 @@ static enum fullness_group putback_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool,
 {
  enum fullness_group fullness;
 
- fullness = get_fullness_group(first_page);
+ fullness = get_fullness_group(class, first_page);
  insert_zspage(class, fullness, first_page);
  set_zspage_mapping(first_page, class->index, fullness);
 
@@ -1939,8 +1936,9 @@ struct zs_pool *zs_create_pool(const char *name)
  class->size = size;
  class->index = i;
  class->pages_per_zspage = pages_per_zspage;
- if (pages_per_zspage == 1 &&
- get_maxobj_per_zspage(size, pages_per_zspage) == 1)
+ class->objs_per_zspage = class->pages_per_zspage *
+ PAGE_SIZE / class->size;
+ if (pages_per_zspage == 1 && class->objs_per_zspage == 1)
  class->huge = true;
  spin_lock_init(&class->lock);
  pool->size_class[i] = class;
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 11/12] zsmalloc: page migration support

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
This patch introduces run-time migration feature for zspage.

For migration, VM uses page.lru field so it would be better to not use
page.next field which is unified with page.lru for own purpose.
For that, firstly, we can get first object offset of the page via
runtime calculation instead of using page.index so we can use
page.index as link for page chaining instead of page.next.

In case of huge object, it stores handle to page.index instead of
next link of page chaining because huge object doesn't need to next
link for page chaining. So get_next_page need to identify huge
object to return NULL. For it, this patch uses PG_owner_priv_1 flag
of the page flag.

For migration, it supports three functions

* zs_page_isolate

It isolates a zspage which includes a subpage VM want to migrate
from class so anyone cannot allocate new object from the zspage.

We could try to isolate a zspage by the number of subpage so
subsequent isolation trial of other subpage of the zpsage shouldn't
fail. For that, we introduce zspage.isolated count. With that,
zs_page_isolate can know whether zspage is already isolated or not
for migration so if it is isolated for migration, subsequent
isolation trial can be successful without trying further isolation.

* zs_page_migrate

First of all, it holds write-side zspage->lock to prevent migrate other
subpage in zspage. Then, lock all objects in the page VM want to migrate.
The reason we should lock all objects in the page is due to race between
zs_map_object and zs_page_migrate.

zs_map_object zs_page_migrate

pin_tag(handle)
obj = handle_to_obj(handle)
obj_to_location(obj, &page, &obj_idx);

                                        write_lock(&zspage->lock)
                                        if (!trypin_tag(handle))
                                                goto unpin_object

zspage = get_zspage(page);
read_lock(&zspage->lock);

If zs_page_migrate doesn't do trypin_tag, zs_map_object's page can
be stale by migration so it goes crash.

If it locks all of objects successfully, it copies content from
old page to new one, finally, create new zspage chain with new page.
And if it's last isolated subpage in the zspage, put the zspage back
to class.

* zs_page_putback

It returns isolated zspage to right fullness_group list if it fails to
migrate a page. If it find a zspage is ZS_EMPTY, it queues zspage
freeing to workqueue. See below about async zspage freeing.

This patch introduces asynchronous zspage free. The reason to need it
is we need page_lock to clear PG_movable but unfortunately,
zs_free path should be atomic so the apporach is try to grab page_lock.
If it got page_lock of all of pages successfully, it can free zspage
immediately. Otherwise, it queues free request and free zspage via
workqueue in process context.

If zs_free finds the zspage is isolated when it try to free zspage,
it delays the freeing until zs_page_putback finds it so it will free
free the zspage finally.

In this patch, we expand fullness_list from ZS_EMPTY to ZS_FULL.
First of all, it will use ZS_EMPTY list for delay freeing.
And with adding ZS_FULL list, it makes to identify whether zspage is
isolated or not via list_empty(&zspage->list) test.

Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 include/uapi/linux/magic.h |   1 +
 mm/zsmalloc.c              | 795 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------
 2 files changed, 674 insertions(+), 122 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/magic.h b/include/uapi/linux/magic.h
index d829ce63529d..e398beac67b8 100644
--- a/include/uapi/linux/magic.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/magic.h
@@ -81,5 +81,6 @@
 /* Since UDF 2.01 is ISO 13346 based... */
 #define UDF_SUPER_MAGIC 0x15013346
 #define BALLOON_KVM_MAGIC 0x13661366
+#define ZSMALLOC_MAGIC 0x58295829
 
 #endif /* __LINUX_MAGIC_H__ */
diff --git a/mm/zsmalloc.c b/mm/zsmalloc.c
index a5da5edfc1d0..71814db72bfc 100644
--- a/mm/zsmalloc.c
+++ b/mm/zsmalloc.c
@@ -17,14 +17,14 @@
  *
  * Usage of struct page fields:
  * page->private: points to zspage
- * page->index: offset of the first object starting in this page.
- * For the first page, this is always 0, so we use this field
- * to store handle for huge object.
- * page->next: links together all component pages of a zspage
+ * page->freelist(index): links together all component pages of a zspage
+ * For the huge page, this is always 0, so we use this field
+ * to store handle.
  *
  * Usage of struct page flags:
  * PG_private: identifies the first component page
  * PG_private2: identifies the last component page
+ * PG_owner_priv_1: indentifies the huge component page
  *
  */
 
@@ -47,6 +47,11 @@
 #include <linux/debugfs.h>
 #include <linux/zsmalloc.h>
 #include <linux/zpool.h>
+#include <linux/mount.h>
+#include <linux/compaction.h>
+#include <linux/pagemap.h>
+
+#define ZSPAGE_MAGIC 0x58
 
 /*
  * This must be power of 2 and greater than of equal to sizeof(link_free).
@@ -134,25 +139,23 @@
  * We do not maintain any list for completely empty or full pages
  */
 enum fullness_group {
- ZS_ALMOST_FULL,
- ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY,
  ZS_EMPTY,
- ZS_FULL
+ ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY,
+ ZS_ALMOST_FULL,
+ ZS_FULL,
+ NR_ZS_FULLNESS,
 };
 
 enum zs_stat_type {
+ CLASS_EMPTY,
+ CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY,
+ CLASS_ALMOST_FULL,
+ CLASS_FULL,
  OBJ_ALLOCATED,
  OBJ_USED,
- CLASS_ALMOST_FULL,
- CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY,
+ NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE,
 };
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT
-#define NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE (CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY + 1)
-#else
-#define NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE (OBJ_USED + 1)
-#endif
-
 struct zs_size_stat {
  unsigned long objs[NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE];
 };
@@ -161,6 +164,10 @@ struct zs_size_stat {
 static struct dentry *zs_stat_root;
 #endif
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
+static struct vfsmount *zsmalloc_mnt;
+#endif
+
 /*
  * number of size_classes
  */
@@ -184,23 +191,36 @@ static const int fullness_threshold_frac = 4;
 
 struct size_class {
  spinlock_t lock;
- struct list_head fullness_list[2];
+ struct list_head fullness_list[NR_ZS_FULLNESS];
  /*
  * Size of objects stored in this class. Must be multiple
  * of ZS_ALIGN.
  */
  int size;
  int objs_per_zspage;
- unsigned int index;
-
- struct zs_size_stat stats;
-
  /* Number of PAGE_SIZE sized pages to combine to form a 'zspage' */
  int pages_per_zspage;
- /* huge object: pages_per_zspage == 1 && maxobj_per_zspage == 1 */
- bool huge;
+
+ unsigned int index;
+ struct zs_size_stat stats;
 };
 
+/* huge object: pages_per_zspage == 1 && maxobj_per_zspage == 1 */
+static void SetPageHugeObject(struct page *page)
+{
+ SetPageOwnerPriv1(page);
+}
+
+static void ClearPageHugeObject(struct page *page)
+{
+ ClearPageOwnerPriv1(page);
+}
+
+static int PageHugeObject(struct page *page)
+{
+ return PageOwnerPriv1(page);
+}
+
 /*
  * Placed within free objects to form a singly linked list.
  * For every zspage, zspage->freeobj gives head of this list.
@@ -242,6 +262,10 @@ struct zs_pool {
 #ifdef CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT
  struct dentry *stat_dentry;
 #endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
+ struct inode *inode;
+ struct work_struct free_work;
+#endif
 };
 
 /*
@@ -250,16 +274,23 @@ struct zs_pool {
  */
 #define FULLNESS_BITS 2
 #define CLASS_BITS 8
+#define ISOLATED_BITS 3
+#define MAGIC_VAL_BITS 8
 
 struct zspage {
  struct {
  unsigned int fullness:FULLNESS_BITS;
  unsigned int class:CLASS_BITS;
+ unsigned int isolated:ISOLATED_BITS;
+ unsigned int magic:MAGIC_VAL_BITS;
  };
  unsigned int inuse;
  unsigned int freeobj;
  struct page *first_page;
  struct list_head list; /* fullness list */
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
+ rwlock_t lock;
+#endif
 };
 
 struct mapping_area {
@@ -272,6 +303,28 @@ struct mapping_area {
  enum zs_mapmode vm_mm; /* mapping mode */
 };
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
+static int zs_register_migration(struct zs_pool *pool);
+static void zs_unregister_migration(struct zs_pool *pool);
+static void migrate_lock_init(struct zspage *zspage);
+static void migrate_read_lock(struct zspage *zspage);
+static void migrate_read_unlock(struct zspage *zspage);
+static void kick_deferred_free(struct zs_pool *pool);
+static void init_deferred_free(struct zs_pool *pool);
+static void SetZsPageMovable(struct zs_pool *pool, struct zspage *zspage);
+#else
+static int zsmalloc_mount(void) { return 0; }
+static void zsmalloc_unmount(void) {}
+static int zs_register_migration(struct zs_pool *pool) { return 0; }
+static void zs_unregister_migration(struct zs_pool *pool) {}
+static void migrate_lock_init(struct zspage *zspage) {}
+static void migrate_read_lock(struct zspage *zspage) {}
+static void migrate_read_unlock(struct zspage *zspage) {}
+static void kick_deferred_free(struct zs_pool *pool) {}
+static void init_deferred_free(struct zs_pool *pool) {}
+static void SetZsPageMovable(struct zs_pool *pool, struct zspage *zspage) {}
+#endif
+
 static int create_cache(struct zs_pool *pool)
 {
  pool->handle_cachep = kmem_cache_create("zs_handle", ZS_HANDLE_SIZE,
@@ -299,7 +352,7 @@ static void destroy_cache(struct zs_pool *pool)
 static unsigned long cache_alloc_handle(struct zs_pool *pool, gfp_t gfp)
 {
  return (unsigned long)kmem_cache_alloc(pool->handle_cachep,
- gfp & ~__GFP_HIGHMEM);
+ gfp & ~(__GFP_HIGHMEM|__GFP_MOVABLE));
 }
 
 static void cache_free_handle(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
@@ -309,7 +362,8 @@ static void cache_free_handle(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
 
 static struct zspage *cache_alloc_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, gfp_t flags)
 {
- return kmem_cache_alloc(pool->zspage_cachep, flags & ~__GFP_HIGHMEM);
+ return kmem_cache_alloc(pool->zspage_cachep,
+ flags & ~(__GFP_HIGHMEM|__GFP_MOVABLE));
 };
 
 static void cache_free_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct zspage *zspage)
@@ -419,11 +473,17 @@ static unsigned int get_maxobj_per_zspage(int size, int pages_per_zspage)
 /* per-cpu VM mapping areas for zspage accesses that cross page boundaries */
 static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct mapping_area, zs_map_area);
 
+static int get_zspage_isolation(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ return zspage->isolated;
+}
+
 static int is_first_page(struct page *page)
 {
  return PagePrivate(page);
 }
 
+/* Protected by class->lock */
 static inline int get_zspage_inuse(struct zspage *zspage)
 {
  return zspage->inuse;
@@ -439,20 +499,12 @@ static inline void mod_zspage_inuse(struct zspage *zspage, int val)
  zspage->inuse += val;
 }
 
-static inline int get_first_obj_offset(struct page *page)
+static inline struct page *get_first_page(struct zspage *zspage)
 {
- if (is_first_page(page))
- return 0;
+ struct page *first_page = zspage->first_page;
 
- return page->index;
-}
-
-static inline void set_first_obj_offset(struct page *page, int offset)
-{
- if (is_first_page(page))
- return;
-
- page->index = offset;
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
+ return first_page;
 }
 
 static inline unsigned int get_freeobj(struct zspage *zspage)
@@ -469,6 +521,8 @@ static void get_zspage_mapping(struct zspage *zspage,
  unsigned int *class_idx,
  enum fullness_group *fullness)
 {
+ VM_BUG_ON(zspage->magic != ZSPAGE_MAGIC);
+
  *fullness = zspage->fullness;
  *class_idx = zspage->class;
 }
@@ -502,23 +556,19 @@ static int get_size_class_index(int size)
 static inline void zs_stat_inc(struct size_class *class,
  enum zs_stat_type type, unsigned long cnt)
 {
- if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
- class->stats.objs[type] += cnt;
+ class->stats.objs[type] += cnt;
 }
 
 static inline void zs_stat_dec(struct size_class *class,
  enum zs_stat_type type, unsigned long cnt)
 {
- if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
- class->stats.objs[type] -= cnt;
+ class->stats.objs[type] -= cnt;
 }
 
 static inline unsigned long zs_stat_get(struct size_class *class,
  enum zs_stat_type type)
 {
- if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
- return class->stats.objs[type];
- return 0;
+ return class->stats.objs[type];
 }
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT
@@ -660,6 +710,7 @@ static inline void zs_pool_stat_destroy(struct zs_pool *pool)
 }
 #endif
 
+
 /*
  * For each size class, zspages are divided into different groups
  * depending on how "full" they are. This was done so that we could
@@ -700,15 +751,9 @@ static void insert_zspage(struct size_class *class,
 {
  struct zspage *head;
 
- if (fullness >= ZS_EMPTY)
- return;
-
+ zs_stat_inc(class, fullness, 1);
  head = list_first_entry_or_null(&class->fullness_list[fullness],
  struct zspage, list);
-
- zs_stat_inc(class, fullness == ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY ?
- CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY : CLASS_ALMOST_FULL, 1);
-
  /*
  * We want to see more ZS_FULL pages and less almost empty/full.
  * Put pages with higher ->inuse first.
@@ -730,14 +775,11 @@ static void remove_zspage(struct size_class *class,
  struct zspage *zspage,
  enum fullness_group fullness)
 {
- if (fullness >= ZS_EMPTY)
- return;
-
  VM_BUG_ON(list_empty(&class->fullness_list[fullness]));
+ VM_BUG_ON(get_zspage_isolation(zspage));
 
  list_del_init(&zspage->list);
- zs_stat_dec(class, fullness == ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY ?
- CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY : CLASS_ALMOST_FULL, 1);
+ zs_stat_dec(class, fullness, 1);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -760,8 +802,11 @@ static enum fullness_group fix_fullness_group(struct size_class *class,
  if (newfg == currfg)
  goto out;
 
- remove_zspage(class, zspage, currfg);
- insert_zspage(class, zspage, newfg);
+ if (!get_zspage_isolation(zspage)) {
+ remove_zspage(class, zspage, currfg);
+ insert_zspage(class, zspage, newfg);
+ }
+
  set_zspage_mapping(zspage, class_idx, newfg);
 
 out:
@@ -804,19 +849,47 @@ static int get_pages_per_zspage(int class_size)
  return max_usedpc_order;
 }
 
-static struct page *get_first_page(struct zspage *zspage)
+static struct zspage *get_zspage(struct page *page)
 {
- return zspage->first_page;
+ struct zspage *zspage = (struct zspage *)page->private;
+
+ VM_BUG_ON(zspage->magic != ZSPAGE_MAGIC);
+ return zspage;
 }
 
-static struct zspage *get_zspage(struct page *page)
+static struct page *get_next_page(struct page *page)
 {
- return (struct zspage *)page->private;
+ if (unlikely(PageHugeObject(page)))
+ return NULL;
+
+ return page->freelist;
 }
 
-static struct page *get_next_page(struct page *page)
+/* Get byte offset of first object in the @page */
+static int get_first_obj_offset(struct size_class *class,
+ struct page *first_page, struct page *page)
 {
- return page->next;
+ int pos, bound;
+ int page_idx = 0;
+ int ofs = 0;
+ struct page *cursor = first_page;
+
+ if (first_page == page)
+ goto out;
+
+ while (page != cursor) {
+ page_idx++;
+ cursor = get_next_page(cursor);
+ }
+
+ bound = PAGE_SIZE * page_idx;
+ pos = (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) *
+ page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size
+      ) * class->size;
+
+ ofs = (pos + class->size) % PAGE_SIZE;
+out:
+ return ofs;
 }
 
 /**
@@ -853,16 +926,20 @@ static unsigned long handle_to_obj(unsigned long handle)
  return *(unsigned long *)handle;
 }
 
-static unsigned long obj_to_head(struct size_class *class, struct page *page,
- void *obj)
+static unsigned long obj_to_head(struct page *page, void *obj)
 {
- if (class->huge) {
+ if (unlikely(PageHugeObject(page))) {
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(page), page);
  return page->index;
  } else
  return *(unsigned long *)obj;
 }
 
+static inline int testpin_tag(unsigned long handle)
+{
+ return bit_spin_is_locked(HANDLE_PIN_BIT, (unsigned long *)handle);
+}
+
 static inline int trypin_tag(unsigned long handle)
 {
  return bit_spin_trylock(HANDLE_PIN_BIT, (unsigned long *)handle);
@@ -880,27 +957,93 @@ static void unpin_tag(unsigned long handle)
 
 static void reset_page(struct page *page)
 {
+ __ClearPageMovable(page);
  clear_bit(PG_private, &page->flags);
  clear_bit(PG_private_2, &page->flags);
  set_page_private(page, 0);
- page->index = 0;
+ ClearPageHugeObject(page);
+ page->freelist = NULL;
 }
 
-static void free_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct zspage *zspage)
+/*
+ * To prevent zspage destroy during migration, zspage freeing should
+ * hold locks of all pages in the zspage.
+ */
+void lock_zspage(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ struct page *page = get_first_page(zspage);
+
+ do {
+ lock_page(page);
+ } while ((page = get_next_page(page)) != NULL);
+}
+
+int trylock_zspage(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ struct page *cursor, *fail;
+
+ for (cursor = get_first_page(zspage); cursor != NULL; cursor =
+ get_next_page(cursor)) {
+ if (!trylock_page(cursor)) {
+ fail = cursor;
+ goto unlock;
+ }
+ }
+
+ return 1;
+unlock:
+ for (cursor = get_first_page(zspage); cursor != fail; cursor =
+ get_next_page(cursor))
+ unlock_page(cursor);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void __free_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class,
+ struct zspage *zspage)
 {
  struct page *page, *next;
+ enum fullness_group fg;
+ unsigned int class_idx;
+
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fg);
+
+ assert_spin_locked(&class->lock);
 
  VM_BUG_ON(get_zspage_inuse(zspage));
+ VM_BUG_ON(fg != ZS_EMPTY);
 
- next = page = zspage->first_page;
+ next = page = get_first_page(zspage);
  do {
- next = page->next;
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageLocked(page), page);
+ next = get_next_page(page);
  reset_page(page);
+ unlock_page(page);
  put_page(page);
  page = next;
  } while (page != NULL);
 
  cache_free_zspage(pool, zspage);
+
+ zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
+ class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
+ atomic_long_sub(class->pages_per_zspage,
+ &pool->pages_allocated);
+}
+
+static void free_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class,
+ struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ VM_BUG_ON(get_zspage_inuse(zspage));
+ VM_BUG_ON(list_empty(&zspage->list));
+
+ if (!trylock_zspage(zspage)) {
+ kick_deferred_free(pool);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ remove_zspage(class, zspage, ZS_EMPTY);
+ __free_zspage(pool, class, zspage);
 }
 
 /* Initialize a newly allocated zspage */
@@ -908,15 +1051,13 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage)
 {
  unsigned int freeobj = 1;
  unsigned long off = 0;
- struct page *page = zspage->first_page;
+ struct page *page = get_first_page(zspage);
 
  while (page) {
  struct page *next_page;
  struct link_free *link;
  void *vaddr;
 
- set_first_obj_offset(page, off);
-
  vaddr = kmap_atomic(page);
  link = (struct link_free *)vaddr + off / sizeof(*link);
 
@@ -948,16 +1089,17 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage)
  set_freeobj(zspage, 0);
 }
 
-static void create_page_chain(struct zspage *zspage, struct page *pages[],
- int nr_pages)
+static void create_page_chain(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage,
+ struct page *pages[])
 {
  int i;
  struct page *page;
  struct page *prev_page = NULL;
+ int nr_pages = class->pages_per_zspage;
 
  /*
  * Allocate individual pages and link them together as:
- * 1. all pages are linked together using page->next
+ * 1. all pages are linked together using page->freelist
  * 2. each sub-page point to zspage using page->private
  *
  * we set PG_private to identify the first page (i.e. no other sub-page
@@ -966,16 +1108,18 @@ static void create_page_chain(struct zspage *zspage, struct page *pages[],
  for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
  page = pages[i];
  set_page_private(page, (unsigned long)zspage);
+ page->freelist = NULL;
  if (i == 0) {
  zspage->first_page = page;
  SetPagePrivate(page);
+ if (unlikely(class->objs_per_zspage == 1 &&
+ class->pages_per_zspage == 1))
+ SetPageHugeObject(page);
  } else {
- prev_page->next = page;
+ prev_page->freelist = page;
  }
- if (i == nr_pages - 1) {
+ if (i == nr_pages - 1)
  SetPagePrivate2(page);
- page->next = NULL;
- }
  prev_page = page;
  }
 }
@@ -995,6 +1139,8 @@ static struct zspage *alloc_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool,
  return NULL;
 
  memset(zspage, 0, sizeof(struct zspage));
+ zspage->magic = ZSPAGE_MAGIC;
+ migrate_lock_init(zspage);
 
  for (i = 0; i < class->pages_per_zspage; i++) {
  struct page *page;
@@ -1009,7 +1155,7 @@ static struct zspage *alloc_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool,
  pages[i] = page;
  }
 
- create_page_chain(zspage, pages, class->pages_per_zspage);
+ create_page_chain(class, zspage, pages);
  init_zspage(class, zspage);
 
  return zspage;
@@ -1020,7 +1166,7 @@ static struct zspage *find_get_zspage(struct size_class *class)
  int i;
  struct zspage *zspage;
 
- for (i = ZS_ALMOST_FULL; i <= ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY; i++) {
+ for (i = ZS_ALMOST_FULL; i >= ZS_EMPTY; i--) {
  zspage = list_first_entry_or_null(&class->fullness_list[i],
  struct zspage, list);
  if (zspage)
@@ -1285,6 +1431,10 @@ void *zs_map_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle,
  obj = handle_to_obj(handle);
  obj_to_location(obj, &page, &obj_idx);
  zspage = get_zspage(page);
+
+ /* migration cannot move any subpage in this zspage */
+ migrate_read_lock(zspage);
+
  get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fg);
  class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
  off = (class->size * obj_idx) & ~PAGE_MASK;
@@ -1305,7 +1455,7 @@ void *zs_map_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle,
 
  ret = __zs_map_object(area, pages, off, class->size);
 out:
- if (!class->huge)
+ if (likely(!PageHugeObject(page)))
  ret += ZS_HANDLE_SIZE;
 
  return ret;
@@ -1344,6 +1494,8 @@ void zs_unmap_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
  __zs_unmap_object(area, pages, off, class->size);
  }
  put_cpu_var(zs_map_area);
+
+ migrate_read_unlock(zspage);
  unpin_tag(handle);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_unmap_object);
@@ -1373,7 +1525,7 @@ static unsigned long obj_malloc(struct size_class *class,
  vaddr = kmap_atomic(m_page);
  link = (struct link_free *)vaddr + m_offset / sizeof(*link);
  set_freeobj(zspage, link->next >> OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG);
- if (!class->huge)
+ if (likely(!PageHugeObject(m_page)))
  /* record handle in the header of allocated chunk */
  link->handle = handle;
  else
@@ -1403,6 +1555,7 @@ unsigned long zs_malloc(struct zs_pool *pool, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)
 {
  unsigned long handle, obj;
  struct size_class *class;
+ enum fullness_group newfg;
  struct zspage *zspage;
 
  if (unlikely(!size || size > ZS_MAX_ALLOC_SIZE))
@@ -1418,28 +1571,37 @@ unsigned long zs_malloc(struct zs_pool *pool, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)
 
  spin_lock(&class->lock);
  zspage = find_get_zspage(class);
-
- if (!zspage) {
+ if (likely(zspage)) {
+ obj = obj_malloc(class, zspage, handle);
+ /* Now move the zspage to another fullness group, if required */
+ fix_fullness_group(class, zspage);
+ record_obj(handle, obj);
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
- zspage = alloc_zspage(pool, class, gfp);
- if (unlikely(!zspage)) {
- cache_free_handle(pool, handle);
- return 0;
- }
 
- set_zspage_mapping(zspage, class->index, ZS_EMPTY);
- atomic_long_add(class->pages_per_zspage,
- &pool->pages_allocated);
+ return handle;
+ }
 
- spin_lock(&class->lock);
- zs_stat_inc(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
- class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
+ spin_unlock(&class->lock);
+
+ zspage = alloc_zspage(pool, class, gfp);
+ if (!zspage) {
+ cache_free_handle(pool, handle);
+ return 0;
  }
 
+ spin_lock(&class->lock);
  obj = obj_malloc(class, zspage, handle);
- /* Now move the zspage to another fullness group, if required */
- fix_fullness_group(class, zspage);
+ newfg = get_fullness_group(class, zspage);
+ insert_zspage(class, zspage, newfg);
+ set_zspage_mapping(zspage, class->index, newfg);
  record_obj(handle, obj);
+ atomic_long_add(class->pages_per_zspage,
+ &pool->pages_allocated);
+ zs_stat_inc(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
+ class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
+
+ /* We completely set up zspage so mark them as movable */
+ SetZsPageMovable(pool, zspage);
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
 
  return handle;
@@ -1480,6 +1642,7 @@ void zs_free(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
  int class_idx;
  struct size_class *class;
  enum fullness_group fullness;
+ bool isolated;
 
  if (unlikely(!handle))
  return;
@@ -1489,22 +1652,28 @@ void zs_free(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
  obj_to_location(obj, &f_page, &f_objidx);
  zspage = get_zspage(f_page);
 
+ migrate_read_lock(zspage);
+
  get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fullness);
  class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
 
  spin_lock(&class->lock);
  obj_free(class, obj);
  fullness = fix_fullness_group(class, zspage);
- if (fullness == ZS_EMPTY) {
- zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
- class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
- atomic_long_sub(class->pages_per_zspage,
- &pool->pages_allocated);
- free_zspage(pool, zspage);
+ if (fullness != ZS_EMPTY) {
+ migrate_read_unlock(zspage);
+ goto out;
  }
+
+ isolated = get_zspage_isolation(zspage);
+ migrate_read_unlock(zspage);
+ /* If zspage is isolated, zs_page_putback will free the zspage */
+ if (likely(!isolated))
+ free_zspage(pool, class, zspage);
+out:
+
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
  unpin_tag(handle);
-
  cache_free_handle(pool, handle);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_free);
@@ -1583,12 +1752,13 @@ static unsigned long find_alloced_obj(struct size_class *class,
  int offset = 0;
  unsigned long handle = 0;
  void *addr = kmap_atomic(page);
+ struct zspage *zspage = get_zspage(page);
 
- offset = get_first_obj_offset(page);
+ offset = get_first_obj_offset(class, get_first_page(zspage), page);
  offset += class->size * index;
 
  while (offset < PAGE_SIZE) {
- head = obj_to_head(class, page, addr + offset);
+ head = obj_to_head(page, addr + offset);
  if (head & OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG) {
  handle = head & ~OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
  if (trypin_tag(handle))
@@ -1680,6 +1850,7 @@ static struct zspage *isolate_zspage(struct size_class *class, bool source)
  zspage = list_first_entry_or_null(&class->fullness_list[fg[i]],
  struct zspage, list);
  if (zspage) {
+ VM_BUG_ON(get_zspage_isolation(zspage));
  remove_zspage(class, zspage, fg[i]);
  return zspage;
  }
@@ -1700,6 +1871,8 @@ static enum fullness_group putback_zspage(struct size_class *class,
 {
  enum fullness_group fullness;
 
+ VM_BUG_ON(get_zspage_isolation(zspage));
+
  fullness = get_fullness_group(class, zspage);
  insert_zspage(class, zspage, fullness);
  set_zspage_mapping(zspage, class->index, fullness);
@@ -1707,6 +1880,377 @@ static enum fullness_group putback_zspage(struct size_class *class,
  return fullness;
 }
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
+static struct dentry *zs_mount(struct file_system_type *fs_type,
+ int flags, const char *dev_name, void *data)
+{
+ static const struct dentry_operations ops = {
+ .d_dname = simple_dname,
+ };
+
+ return mount_pseudo(fs_type, "zsmalloc:", NULL, &ops, ZSMALLOC_MAGIC);
+}
+
+static struct file_system_type zsmalloc_fs = {
+ .name = "zsmalloc",
+ .mount = zs_mount,
+ .kill_sb = kill_anon_super,
+};
+
+static int zsmalloc_mount(void)
+{
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ zsmalloc_mnt = kern_mount(&zsmalloc_fs);
+ if (IS_ERR(zsmalloc_mnt))
+ ret = PTR_ERR(zsmalloc_mnt);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static void zsmalloc_unmount(void)
+{
+ kern_unmount(zsmalloc_mnt);
+}
+
+static void migrate_lock_init(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ rwlock_init(&zspage->lock);
+}
+
+static void migrate_read_lock(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ read_lock(&zspage->lock);
+}
+
+static void migrate_read_unlock(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ read_unlock(&zspage->lock);
+}
+
+static void migrate_write_lock(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ write_lock(&zspage->lock);
+}
+
+static void migrate_write_unlock(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ write_unlock(&zspage->lock);
+}
+
+/* Number of isolated subpage for *page migration* in this zspage */
+static void inc_zspage_isolation(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ zspage->isolated++;
+}
+
+static void dec_zspage_isolation(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ zspage->isolated--;
+}
+
+static void replace_sub_page(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage,
+ struct page *newpage, struct page *oldpage)
+{
+ struct page *page;
+ struct page *pages[ZS_MAX_PAGES_PER_ZSPAGE] = {NULL, };
+ int idx = 0;
+
+ page = get_first_page(zspage);
+ do {
+ if (page == oldpage)
+ pages[idx] = newpage;
+ else
+ pages[idx] = page;
+ idx++;
+ } while ((page = get_next_page(page)) != NULL);
+
+ create_page_chain(class, zspage, pages);
+ if (unlikely(PageHugeObject(oldpage)))
+ newpage->index = oldpage->index;
+ __SetPageMovable(newpage, page_mapping(oldpage));
+}
+
+bool zs_page_isolate(struct page *page, isolate_mode_t mode)
+{
+ struct zs_pool *pool;
+ struct size_class *class;
+ int class_idx;
+ enum fullness_group fullness;
+ struct zspage *zspage;
+ struct address_space *mapping;
+
+ /*
+ * Page is locked so zspage couldn't be destroyed. For detail, look at
+ * lock_zspage in free_zspage.
+ */
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageMovable(page), page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageIsolated(page), page);
+
+ zspage = get_zspage(page);
+
+ /*
+ * Without class lock, fullness could be stale while class_idx is okay
+ * because class_idx is constant unless page is freed so we should get
+ * fullness again under class lock.
+ */
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fullness);
+ mapping = page_mapping(page);
+ pool = mapping->private_data;
+ class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
+
+ spin_lock(&class->lock);
+ if (get_zspage_inuse(zspage) == 0) {
+ spin_unlock(&class->lock);
+ return false;
+ }
+
+ /* zspage is isolated for object migration */
+ if (list_empty(&zspage->list) && !get_zspage_isolation(zspage)) {
+ spin_unlock(&class->lock);
+ return false;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * If this is first time isolation for the zspage, isolate zspage from
+ * size_class to prevent further object allocation from the zspage.
+ */
+ if (!list_empty(&zspage->list) && !get_zspage_isolation(zspage)) {
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fullness);
+ remove_zspage(class, zspage, fullness);
+ }
+
+ inc_zspage_isolation(zspage);
+ spin_unlock(&class->lock);
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+int zs_page_migrate(struct address_space *mapping, struct page *newpage,
+ struct page *page, enum migrate_mode mode)
+{
+ struct zs_pool *pool;
+ struct size_class *class;
+ int class_idx;
+ enum fullness_group fullness;
+ struct zspage *zspage;
+ struct page *dummy;
+ void *s_addr, *d_addr, *addr;
+ int offset, pos;
+ unsigned long handle, head;
+ unsigned long old_obj, new_obj;
+ unsigned int obj_idx;
+ int ret = -EAGAIN;
+
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageMovable(page), page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageIsolated(page), page);
+
+ zspage = get_zspage(page);
+
+ /* Concurrent compactor cannot migrate any subpage in zspage */
+ migrate_write_lock(zspage);
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fullness);
+ pool = mapping->private_data;
+ class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
+ offset = get_first_obj_offset(class, get_first_page(zspage), page);
+
+ spin_lock(&class->lock);
+ if (!get_zspage_inuse(zspage)) {
+ ret = -EBUSY;
+ goto unlock_class;
+ }
+
+ pos = offset;
+ s_addr = kmap_atomic(page);
+ while (pos < PAGE_SIZE) {
+ head = obj_to_head(page, s_addr + pos);
+ if (head & OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG) {
+ handle = head & ~OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
+ if (!trypin_tag(handle))
+ goto unpin_objects;
+ }
+ pos += class->size;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Here, any user cannot access all objects in the zspage so let's move.
+ */
+ d_addr = kmap_atomic(newpage);
+ memcpy(d_addr, s_addr, PAGE_SIZE);
+ kunmap_atomic(d_addr);
+
+ for (addr = s_addr + offset; addr < s_addr + pos;
+ addr += class->size) {
+ head = obj_to_head(page, addr);
+ if (head & OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG) {
+ handle = head & ~OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
+ if (!testpin_tag(handle))
+ BUG();
+
+ old_obj = handle_to_obj(handle);
+ obj_to_location(old_obj, &dummy, &obj_idx);
+ new_obj = (unsigned long)location_to_obj(newpage,
+ obj_idx);
+ new_obj |= BIT(HANDLE_PIN_BIT);
+ record_obj(handle, new_obj);
+ }
+ }
+
+ replace_sub_page(class, zspage, newpage, page);
+ get_page(newpage);
+
+ dec_zspage_isolation(zspage);
+
+ /*
+ * Page migration is done so let's putback isolated zspage to
+ * the list if @page is final isolated subpage in the zspage.
+ */
+ if (!get_zspage_isolation(zspage))
+ putback_zspage(class, zspage);
+
+ reset_page(page);
+ put_page(page);
+ page = newpage;
+
+ ret = 0;
+unpin_objects:
+ for (addr = s_addr + offset; addr < s_addr + pos;
+ addr += class->size) {
+ head = obj_to_head(page, addr);
+ if (head & OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG) {
+ handle = head & ~OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
+ if (!testpin_tag(handle))
+ BUG();
+ unpin_tag(handle);
+ }
+ }
+ kunmap_atomic(s_addr);
+unlock_class:
+ spin_unlock(&class->lock);
+ migrate_write_unlock(zspage);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+void zs_page_putback(struct page *page)
+{
+ struct zs_pool *pool;
+ struct size_class *class;
+ int class_idx;
+ enum fullness_group fg;
+ struct address_space *mapping;
+ struct zspage *zspage;
+
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageMovable(page), page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageIsolated(page), page);
+
+ zspage = get_zspage(page);
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fg);
+ mapping = page_mapping(page);
+ pool = mapping->private_data;
+ class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
+
+ spin_lock(&class->lock);
+ dec_zspage_isolation(zspage);
+ if (!get_zspage_isolation(zspage)) {
+ fg = putback_zspage(class, zspage);
+ /*
+ * Due to page_lock, we cannot free zspage immediately
+ * so let's defer.
+ */
+ if (fg == ZS_EMPTY)
+ schedule_work(&pool->free_work);
+ }
+ spin_unlock(&class->lock);
+}
+
+const struct address_space_operations zsmalloc_aops = {
+ .isolate_page = zs_page_isolate,
+ .migratepage = zs_page_migrate,
+ .putback_page = zs_page_putback,
+};
+
+static int zs_register_migration(struct zs_pool *pool)
+{
+ pool->inode = alloc_anon_inode(zsmalloc_mnt->mnt_sb);
+ if (IS_ERR(pool->inode)) {
+ pool->inode = NULL;
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ pool->inode->i_mapping->private_data = pool;
+ pool->inode->i_mapping->a_ops = &zsmalloc_aops;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void zs_unregister_migration(struct zs_pool *pool)
+{
+ flush_work(&pool->free_work);
+ if (pool->inode)
+ iput(pool->inode);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Caller should hold page_lock of all pages in the zspage
+ * In here, we cannot use zspage meta data.
+ */
+static void async_free_zspage(struct work_struct *work)
+{
+ int i;
+ struct size_class *class;
+ unsigned int class_idx;
+ enum fullness_group fullness;
+ struct zspage *zspage, *tmp;
+ LIST_HEAD(free_pages);
+ struct zs_pool *pool = container_of(work, struct zs_pool,
+ free_work);
+
+ for (i = 0; i < zs_size_classes; i++) {
+ class = pool->size_class[i];
+ if (class->index != i)
+ continue;
+
+ spin_lock(&class->lock);
+ list_splice_init(&class->fullness_list[ZS_EMPTY], &free_pages);
+ spin_unlock(&class->lock);
+ }
+
+
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(zspage, tmp, &free_pages, list) {
+ list_del(&zspage->list);
+ lock_zspage(zspage);
+
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fullness);
+ VM_BUG_ON(fullness != ZS_EMPTY);
+ class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
+ spin_lock(&class->lock);
+ __free_zspage(pool, pool->size_class[class_idx], zspage);
+ spin_unlock(&class->lock);
+ }
+};
+
+static void kick_deferred_free(struct zs_pool *pool)
+{
+ schedule_work(&pool->free_work);
+}
+
+static void init_deferred_free(struct zs_pool *pool)
+{
+ INIT_WORK(&pool->free_work, async_free_zspage);
+}
+
+static void SetZsPageMovable(struct zs_pool *pool, struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ struct page *page = get_first_page(zspage);
+
+ do {
+ WARN_ON(!trylock_page(page));
+ __SetPageMovable(page, pool->inode->i_mapping);
+ unlock_page(page);
+ } while ((page = get_next_page(page)) != NULL);
+}
+#endif
+
 /*
  *
  * Based on the number of unused allocated objects calculate
@@ -1741,10 +2285,10 @@ static void __zs_compact(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class)
  break;
 
  cc.index = 0;
- cc.s_page = src_zspage->first_page;
+ cc.s_page = get_first_page(src_zspage);
 
  while ((dst_zspage = isolate_zspage(class, false))) {
- cc.d_page = dst_zspage->first_page;
+ cc.d_page = get_first_page(dst_zspage);
  /*
  * If there is no more space in dst_page, resched
  * and see if anyone had allocated another zspage.
@@ -1761,11 +2305,7 @@ static void __zs_compact(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class)
 
  putback_zspage(class, dst_zspage);
  if (putback_zspage(class, src_zspage) == ZS_EMPTY) {
- zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
- class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
- atomic_long_sub(class->pages_per_zspage,
- &pool->pages_allocated);
- free_zspage(pool, src_zspage);
+ free_zspage(pool, class, src_zspage);
  pool->stats.pages_compacted += class->pages_per_zspage;
  }
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
@@ -1881,6 +2421,7 @@ struct zs_pool *zs_create_pool(const char *name)
  if (!pool)
  return NULL;
 
+ init_deferred_free(pool);
  pool->size_class = kcalloc(zs_size_classes, sizeof(struct size_class *),
  GFP_KERNEL);
  if (!pool->size_class) {
@@ -1935,12 +2476,10 @@ struct zs_pool *zs_create_pool(const char *name)
  class->pages_per_zspage = pages_per_zspage;
  class->objs_per_zspage = class->pages_per_zspage *
  PAGE_SIZE / class->size;
- if (pages_per_zspage == 1 && class->objs_per_zspage == 1)
- class->huge = true;
  spin_lock_init(&class->lock);
  pool->size_class[i] = class;
- for (fullness = ZS_ALMOST_FULL; fullness <= ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY;
- fullness++)
+ for (fullness = ZS_EMPTY; fullness < NR_ZS_FULLNESS;
+ fullness++)
  INIT_LIST_HEAD(&class->fullness_list[fullness]);
 
  prev_class = class;
@@ -1949,6 +2488,9 @@ struct zs_pool *zs_create_pool(const char *name)
  /* debug only, don't abort if it fails */
  zs_pool_stat_create(pool, name);
 
+ if (zs_register_migration(pool))
+ goto err;
+
  /*
  * Not critical, we still can use the pool
  * and user can trigger compaction manually.
@@ -1968,6 +2510,7 @@ void zs_destroy_pool(struct zs_pool *pool)
  int i;
 
  zs_unregister_shrinker(pool);
+ zs_unregister_migration(pool);
  zs_pool_stat_destroy(pool);
 
  for (i = 0; i < zs_size_classes; i++) {
@@ -1980,7 +2523,7 @@ void zs_destroy_pool(struct zs_pool *pool)
  if (class->index != i)
  continue;
 
- for (fg = ZS_ALMOST_FULL; fg <= ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY; fg++) {
+ for (fg = ZS_EMPTY; fg < NR_ZS_FULLNESS; fg++) {
  if (!list_empty(&class->fullness_list[fg])) {
  pr_info("Freeing non-empty class with size %db, fullness group %d\n",
  class->size, fg);
@@ -1998,7 +2541,13 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_destroy_pool);
 
 static int __init zs_init(void)
 {
- int ret = zs_register_cpu_notifier();
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = zsmalloc_mount();
+ if (ret)
+ goto out;
+
+ ret = zs_register_cpu_notifier();
 
  if (ret)
  goto notifier_fail;
@@ -2022,7 +2571,8 @@ static int __init zs_init(void)
 #endif
 notifier_fail:
  zs_unregister_cpu_notifier();
-
+ zsmalloc_unmount();
+out:
  return ret;
 }
 
@@ -2031,6 +2581,7 @@ static void __exit zs_exit(void)
 #ifdef CONFIG_ZPOOL
  zpool_unregister_driver(&zs_zpool_driver);
 #endif
+ zsmalloc_unmount();
  zs_unregister_cpu_notifier();
 
  zs_stat_exit();
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 12/12] zram: use __GFP_MOVABLE for memory allocation

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
Zsmalloc is ready for page migration so zram can use __GFP_MOVABLE
from now on.

I did test to see how it helps to make higher order pages.
Test scenario is as follows.

KVM guest, 1G memory, ext4 formated zram block device,

for i in `seq 1 8`;
do
        dd if=/dev/vda1 of=mnt/test$i.txt bs=128M count=1 &
done

wait `pidof dd`

for i in `seq 1 2 8`;
do
        rm -rf mnt/test$i.txt
done
fstrim -v mnt

echo "init"
cat /proc/buddyinfo

echo "compaction"
echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/compact_memory
cat /proc/buddyinfo

old:

init
Node 0, zone      DMA    208    120     51     41     11      0      0      0      0      0      0
Node 0, zone    DMA32  16380  13777   9184   3805    789     54      3      0      0      0      0
compaction
Node 0, zone      DMA    132     82     40     39     16      2      1      0      0      0      0
Node 0, zone    DMA32   5219   5526   4969   3455   1831    677    139     15      0      0      0

new:

init
Node 0, zone      DMA    379    115     97     19      2      0      0      0      0      0      0
Node 0, zone    DMA32  18891  16774  10862   3947    637     21      0      0      0      0      0
compaction  1
Node 0, zone      DMA    214     66     87     29     10      3      0      0      0      0      0
Node 0, zone    DMA32   1612   3139   3154   2469   1745    990    384     94      7      0      0

As you can see, compaction made so many high-order pages. Yay!

Reviewed-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>

Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c | 6 ++++--
 1 file changed, 4 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c b/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
index 8fcad8b761f1..ccf1bddd09ca 100644
--- a/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
+++ b/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
@@ -732,7 +732,8 @@ static int zram_bvec_write(struct zram *zram, struct bio_vec *bvec, u32 index,
  handle = zs_malloc(meta->mem_pool, clen,
  __GFP_KSWAPD_RECLAIM |
  __GFP_NOWARN |
- __GFP_HIGHMEM);
+ __GFP_HIGHMEM |
+ __GFP_MOVABLE);
  if (!handle) {
  zcomp_strm_release(zram->comp, zstrm);
  zstrm = NULL;
@@ -740,7 +741,8 @@ static int zram_bvec_write(struct zram *zram, struct bio_vec *bvec, u32 index,
  atomic64_inc(&zram->stats.writestall);
 
  handle = zs_malloc(meta->mem_pool, clen,
- GFP_NOIO | __GFP_HIGHMEM);
+ GFP_NOIO | __GFP_HIGHMEM |
+ __GFP_MOVABLE);
  if (handle)
  goto compress_again;
 
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 10/12] zsmalloc: use freeobj for index

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
Zsmalloc stores first free object's <PFN, obj_idx> position into
freeobj in each zspage. If we change it with index from first_page
instead of position, it makes page migration simple because we
don't need to correct other entries for linked list if a page is
migrated out.

Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 mm/zsmalloc.c | 139 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------------------
 1 file changed, 73 insertions(+), 66 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/zsmalloc.c b/mm/zsmalloc.c
index 8fc16cc4d76d..a5da5edfc1d0 100644
--- a/mm/zsmalloc.c
+++ b/mm/zsmalloc.c
@@ -69,9 +69,7 @@
  * Object location (<PFN>, <obj_idx>) is encoded as
  * as single (unsigned long) handle value.
  *
- * Note that object index <obj_idx> is relative to system
- * page <PFN> it is stored in, so for each sub-page belonging
- * to a zspage, obj_idx starts with 0.
+ * Note that object index <obj_idx> starts from 0.
  *
  * This is made more complicated by various memory models and PAE.
  */
@@ -212,10 +210,10 @@ struct size_class {
 struct link_free {
  union {
  /*
- * Position of next free chunk (encodes <PFN, obj_idx>)
+ * Free object index;
  * It's valid for non-allocated object
  */
- void *next;
+ unsigned long next;
  /*
  * Handle of allocated object.
  */
@@ -259,7 +257,7 @@ struct zspage {
  unsigned int class:CLASS_BITS;
  };
  unsigned int inuse;
- void *freeobj;
+ unsigned int freeobj;
  struct page *first_page;
  struct list_head list; /* fullness list */
 };
@@ -457,14 +455,14 @@ static inline void set_first_obj_offset(struct page *page, int offset)
  page->index = offset;
 }
 
-static inline unsigned long get_freeobj(struct zspage *zspage)
+static inline unsigned int get_freeobj(struct zspage *zspage)
 {
- return (unsigned long)zspage->freeobj;
+ return zspage->freeobj;
 }
 
-static inline void set_freeobj(struct zspage *zspage, unsigned long obj)
+static inline void set_freeobj(struct zspage *zspage, unsigned int obj)
 {
- zspage->freeobj = (void *)obj;
+ zspage->freeobj = obj;
 }
 
 static void get_zspage_mapping(struct zspage *zspage,
@@ -806,6 +804,10 @@ static int get_pages_per_zspage(int class_size)
  return max_usedpc_order;
 }
 
+static struct page *get_first_page(struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ return zspage->first_page;
+}
 
 static struct zspage *get_zspage(struct page *page)
 {
@@ -817,37 +819,33 @@ static struct page *get_next_page(struct page *page)
  return page->next;
 }
 
-/*
- * Encode <page, obj_idx> as a single handle value.
- * We use the least bit of handle for tagging.
+/**
+ * obj_to_location - get (<page>, <obj_idx>) from encoded object value
+ * @page: page object resides in zspage
+ * @obj_idx: object index
  */
-static void *location_to_obj(struct page *page, unsigned long obj_idx)
+static void obj_to_location(unsigned long obj, struct page **page,
+ unsigned int *obj_idx)
 {
- unsigned long obj;
+ obj >>= OBJ_TAG_BITS;
+ *page = pfn_to_page(obj >> OBJ_INDEX_BITS);
+ *obj_idx = (obj & OBJ_INDEX_MASK);
+}
 
- if (!page) {
- VM_BUG_ON(obj_idx);
- return NULL;
- }
+/**
+ * location_to_obj - get obj value encoded from (<page>, <obj_idx>)
+ * @page: page object resides in zspage
+ * @obj_idx: object index
+ */
+static unsigned long location_to_obj(struct page *page, unsigned int obj_idx)
+{
+ unsigned long obj;
 
  obj = page_to_pfn(page) << OBJ_INDEX_BITS;
- obj |= ((obj_idx) & OBJ_INDEX_MASK);
+ obj |= obj_idx & OBJ_INDEX_MASK;
  obj <<= OBJ_TAG_BITS;
 
- return (void *)obj;
-}
-
-/*
- * Decode <page, obj_idx> pair from the given object handle. We adjust the
- * decoded obj_idx back to its original value since it was adjusted in
- * location_to_obj().
- */
-static void obj_to_location(unsigned long obj, struct page **page,
- unsigned long *obj_idx)
-{
- obj >>= OBJ_TAG_BITS;
- *page = pfn_to_page(obj >> OBJ_INDEX_BITS);
- *obj_idx = (obj & OBJ_INDEX_MASK);
+ return obj;
 }
 
 static unsigned long handle_to_obj(unsigned long handle)
@@ -865,16 +863,6 @@ static unsigned long obj_to_head(struct size_class *class, struct page *page,
  return *(unsigned long *)obj;
 }
 
-static unsigned long obj_idx_to_offset(struct page *page,
- unsigned long obj_idx, int class_size)
-{
- unsigned long off;
-
- off = get_first_obj_offset(page);
-
- return off + obj_idx * class_size;
-}
-
 static inline int trypin_tag(unsigned long handle)
 {
  return bit_spin_trylock(HANDLE_PIN_BIT, (unsigned long *)handle);
@@ -918,13 +906,13 @@ static void free_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct zspage *zspage)
 /* Initialize a newly allocated zspage */
 static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage)
 {
+ unsigned int freeobj = 1;
  unsigned long off = 0;
  struct page *page = zspage->first_page;
 
  while (page) {
  struct page *next_page;
  struct link_free *link;
- unsigned int i = 1;
  void *vaddr;
 
  set_first_obj_offset(page, off);
@@ -933,7 +921,7 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage)
  link = (struct link_free *)vaddr + off / sizeof(*link);
 
  while ((off += class->size) < PAGE_SIZE) {
- link->next = location_to_obj(page, i++);
+ link->next = freeobj++ << OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
  link += class->size / sizeof(*link);
  }
 
@@ -943,14 +931,21 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage)
  * page (if present)
  */
  next_page = get_next_page(page);
- link->next = location_to_obj(next_page, 0);
+ if (next_page) {
+ link->next = freeobj++ << OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * Reset OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG bit to last link to tell
+ * whether it's allocated object or not.
+ */
+ link->next = -1 << OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
+ }
  kunmap_atomic(vaddr);
  page = next_page;
  off %= PAGE_SIZE;
  }
 
- set_freeobj(zspage,
- (unsigned long)location_to_obj(zspage->first_page, 0));
+ set_freeobj(zspage, 0);
 }
 
 static void create_page_chain(struct zspage *zspage, struct page *pages[],
@@ -1267,7 +1262,8 @@ void *zs_map_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle,
 {
  struct zspage *zspage;
  struct page *page;
- unsigned long obj, obj_idx, off;
+ unsigned long obj, off;
+ unsigned int obj_idx;
 
  unsigned int class_idx;
  enum fullness_group fg;
@@ -1291,7 +1287,7 @@ void *zs_map_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle,
  zspage = get_zspage(page);
  get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fg);
  class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
- off = obj_idx_to_offset(page, obj_idx, class->size);
+ off = (class->size * obj_idx) & ~PAGE_MASK;
 
  area = &get_cpu_var(zs_map_area);
  area->vm_mm = mm;
@@ -1320,7 +1316,8 @@ void zs_unmap_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
 {
  struct zspage *zspage;
  struct page *page;
- unsigned long obj, obj_idx, off;
+ unsigned long obj, off;
+ unsigned int obj_idx;
 
  unsigned int class_idx;
  enum fullness_group fg;
@@ -1332,7 +1329,7 @@ void zs_unmap_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
  zspage = get_zspage(page);
  get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fg);
  class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
- off = obj_idx_to_offset(page, obj_idx, class->size);
+ off = (class->size * obj_idx) & ~PAGE_MASK;
 
  area = this_cpu_ptr(&zs_map_area);
  if (off + class->size <= PAGE_SIZE)
@@ -1354,21 +1351,28 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_unmap_object);
 static unsigned long obj_malloc(struct size_class *class,
  struct zspage *zspage, unsigned long handle)
 {
+ int i, nr_page, offset;
  unsigned long obj;
  struct link_free *link;
 
  struct page *m_page;
- unsigned long m_objidx, m_offset;
+ unsigned long m_offset;
  void *vaddr;
 
  handle |= OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
  obj = get_freeobj(zspage);
- obj_to_location(obj, &m_page, &m_objidx);
- m_offset = obj_idx_to_offset(m_page, m_objidx, class->size);
+
+ offset = obj * class->size;
+ nr_page = offset >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+ m_offset = offset & ~PAGE_MASK;
+ m_page = get_first_page(zspage);
+
+ for (i = 0; i < nr_page; i++)
+ m_page = get_next_page(m_page);
 
  vaddr = kmap_atomic(m_page);
  link = (struct link_free *)vaddr + m_offset / sizeof(*link);
- set_freeobj(zspage, (unsigned long)link->next);
+ set_freeobj(zspage, link->next >> OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG);
  if (!class->huge)
  /* record handle in the header of allocated chunk */
  link->handle = handle;
@@ -1380,6 +1384,8 @@ static unsigned long obj_malloc(struct size_class *class,
  mod_zspage_inuse(zspage, 1);
  zs_stat_inc(class, OBJ_USED, 1);
 
+ obj = location_to_obj(m_page, obj);
+
  return obj;
 }
 
@@ -1445,22 +1451,22 @@ static void obj_free(struct size_class *class, unsigned long obj)
  struct link_free *link;
  struct zspage *zspage;
  struct page *f_page;
- unsigned long f_objidx, f_offset;
+ unsigned long f_offset;
+ unsigned int f_objidx;
  void *vaddr;
 
  obj &= ~OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
  obj_to_location(obj, &f_page, &f_objidx);
+ f_offset = (class->size * f_objidx) & ~PAGE_MASK;
  zspage = get_zspage(f_page);
 
- f_offset = obj_idx_to_offset(f_page, f_objidx, class->size);
-
  vaddr = kmap_atomic(f_page);
 
  /* Insert this object in containing zspage's freelist */
  link = (struct link_free *)(vaddr + f_offset);
- link->next = (void *)get_freeobj(zspage);
+ link->next = get_freeobj(zspage) << OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
  kunmap_atomic(vaddr);
- set_freeobj(zspage, obj);
+ set_freeobj(zspage, f_objidx);
  mod_zspage_inuse(zspage, -1);
  zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_USED, 1);
 }
@@ -1469,7 +1475,8 @@ void zs_free(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
 {
  struct zspage *zspage;
  struct page *f_page;
- unsigned long obj, f_objidx;
+ unsigned long obj;
+ unsigned int f_objidx;
  int class_idx;
  struct size_class *class;
  enum fullness_group fullness;
@@ -1506,7 +1513,7 @@ static void zs_object_copy(struct size_class *class, unsigned long dst,
  unsigned long src)
 {
  struct page *s_page, *d_page;
- unsigned long s_objidx, d_objidx;
+ unsigned int s_objidx, d_objidx;
  unsigned long s_off, d_off;
  void *s_addr, *d_addr;
  int s_size, d_size, size;
@@ -1517,8 +1524,8 @@ static void zs_object_copy(struct size_class *class, unsigned long dst,
  obj_to_location(src, &s_page, &s_objidx);
  obj_to_location(dst, &d_page, &d_objidx);
 
- s_off = obj_idx_to_offset(s_page, s_objidx, class->size);
- d_off = obj_idx_to_offset(d_page, d_objidx, class->size);
+ s_off = (class->size * s_objidx) & ~PAGE_MASK;
+ d_off = (class->size * d_objidx) & ~PAGE_MASK;
 
  if (s_off + class->size > PAGE_SIZE)
  s_size = PAGE_SIZE - s_off;
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 06/12] zsmalloc: use accessor

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
Upcoming patch will change how to encode zspage meta so for easy review,
this patch wraps code to access metadata as accessor.

Reviewed-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 mm/zsmalloc.c | 82 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
 1 file changed, 60 insertions(+), 22 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/zsmalloc.c b/mm/zsmalloc.c
index 9adaeef578b6..cb342882cde3 100644
--- a/mm/zsmalloc.c
+++ b/mm/zsmalloc.c
@@ -266,10 +266,14 @@ struct zs_pool {
  * A zspage's class index and fullness group
  * are encoded in its (first)page->mapping
  */
-#define CLASS_IDX_BITS 28
 #define FULLNESS_BITS 4
-#define CLASS_IDX_MASK ((1 << CLASS_IDX_BITS) - 1)
-#define FULLNESS_MASK ((1 << FULLNESS_BITS) - 1)
+#define CLASS_BITS 28
+
+#define FULLNESS_SHIFT 0
+#define CLASS_SHIFT (FULLNESS_SHIFT + FULLNESS_BITS)
+
+#define FULLNESS_MASK ((1UL << FULLNESS_BITS) - 1)
+#define CLASS_MASK ((1UL << CLASS_BITS) - 1)
 
 struct mapping_area {
 #ifdef CONFIG_PGTABLE_MAPPING
@@ -416,6 +420,41 @@ static int is_last_page(struct page *page)
  return PagePrivate2(page);
 }
 
+static inline int get_zspage_inuse(struct page *first_page)
+{
+ return first_page->inuse;
+}
+
+static inline void set_zspage_inuse(struct page *first_page, int val)
+{
+ first_page->inuse = val;
+}
+
+static inline void mod_zspage_inuse(struct page *first_page, int val)
+{
+ first_page->inuse += val;
+}
+
+static inline int get_first_obj_offset(struct page *page)
+{
+ return page->index;
+}
+
+static inline void set_first_obj_offset(struct page *page, int offset)
+{
+ page->index = offset;
+}
+
+static inline unsigned long get_freeobj(struct page *first_page)
+{
+ return (unsigned long)first_page->freelist;
+}
+
+static inline void set_freeobj(struct page *first_page, unsigned long obj)
+{
+ first_page->freelist = (void *)obj;
+}
+
 static void get_zspage_mapping(struct page *first_page,
  unsigned int *class_idx,
  enum fullness_group *fullness)
@@ -424,8 +463,8 @@ static void get_zspage_mapping(struct page *first_page,
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
 
  m = (unsigned long)first_page->mapping;
- *fullness = m & FULLNESS_MASK;
- *class_idx = (m >> FULLNESS_BITS) & CLASS_IDX_MASK;
+ *fullness = (m >> FULLNESS_SHIFT) & FULLNESS_MASK;
+ *class_idx = (m >> CLASS_SHIFT) & CLASS_MASK;
 }
 
 static void set_zspage_mapping(struct page *first_page,
@@ -435,8 +474,7 @@ static void set_zspage_mapping(struct page *first_page,
  unsigned long m;
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
 
- m = ((class_idx & CLASS_IDX_MASK) << FULLNESS_BITS) |
- (fullness & FULLNESS_MASK);
+ m = (class_idx << CLASS_SHIFT) | (fullness << FULLNESS_SHIFT);
  first_page->mapping = (struct address_space *)m;
 }
 
@@ -634,7 +672,7 @@ static enum fullness_group get_fullness_group(struct size_class *class,
 
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
 
- inuse = first_page->inuse;
+ inuse = get_zspage_inuse(first_page);
  objs_per_zspage = class->objs_per_zspage;
 
  if (inuse == 0)
@@ -680,7 +718,7 @@ static void insert_zspage(struct size_class *class,
  * empty/full. Put pages with higher ->inuse first.
  */
  list_add_tail(&first_page->lru, &(*head)->lru);
- if (first_page->inuse >= (*head)->inuse)
+ if (get_zspage_inuse(first_page) >= get_zspage_inuse(*head))
  *head = first_page;
 }
 
@@ -857,7 +895,7 @@ static unsigned long obj_idx_to_offset(struct page *page,
  unsigned long off = 0;
 
  if (!is_first_page(page))
- off = page->index;
+ off = get_first_obj_offset(page);
 
  return off + obj_idx * class_size;
 }
@@ -892,7 +930,7 @@ static void free_zspage(struct page *first_page)
  struct page *nextp, *tmp, *head_extra;
 
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(first_page->inuse, first_page);
+ VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(get_zspage_inuse(first_page), first_page);
 
  head_extra = (struct page *)page_private(first_page);
 
@@ -933,7 +971,7 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
  * head of corresponding zspage's freelist.
  */
  if (page != first_page)
- page->index = off;
+ set_first_obj_offset(page, off);
 
  vaddr = kmap_atomic(page);
  link = (struct link_free *)vaddr + off / sizeof(*link);
@@ -988,7 +1026,7 @@ static struct page *alloc_zspage(struct size_class *class, gfp_t flags)
  SetPagePrivate(page);
  set_page_private(page, 0);
  first_page = page;
- first_page->inuse = 0;
+ set_zspage_inuse(first_page, 0);
  }
  if (i == 1)
  set_page_private(first_page, (unsigned long)page);
@@ -1003,7 +1041,7 @@ static struct page *alloc_zspage(struct size_class *class, gfp_t flags)
 
  init_zspage(class, first_page);
 
- first_page->freelist = location_to_obj(first_page, 0);
+ set_freeobj(first_page, (unsigned long)location_to_obj(first_page, 0));
  error = 0; /* Success */
 
 cleanup:
@@ -1235,7 +1273,7 @@ static bool zspage_full(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
 {
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
 
- return first_page->inuse == class->objs_per_zspage;
+ return get_zspage_inuse(first_page) == class->objs_per_zspage;
 }
 
 unsigned long zs_get_total_pages(struct zs_pool *pool)
@@ -1354,13 +1392,13 @@ static unsigned long obj_malloc(struct size_class *class,
  void *vaddr;
 
  handle |= OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
- obj = (unsigned long)first_page->freelist;
+ obj = get_freeobj(first_page);
  obj_to_location(obj, &m_page, &m_objidx);
  m_offset = obj_idx_to_offset(m_page, m_objidx, class->size);
 
  vaddr = kmap_atomic(m_page);
  link = (struct link_free *)vaddr + m_offset / sizeof(*link);
- first_page->freelist = link->next;
+ set_freeobj(first_page, (unsigned long)link->next);
  if (!class->huge)
  /* record handle in the header of allocated chunk */
  link->handle = handle;
@@ -1368,7 +1406,7 @@ static unsigned long obj_malloc(struct size_class *class,
  /* record handle in first_page->private */
  set_page_private(first_page, handle);
  kunmap_atomic(vaddr);
- first_page->inuse++;
+ mod_zspage_inuse(first_page, 1);
  zs_stat_inc(class, OBJ_USED, 1);
 
  return obj;
@@ -1448,12 +1486,12 @@ static void obj_free(struct size_class *class, unsigned long obj)
 
  /* Insert this object in containing zspage's freelist */
  link = (struct link_free *)(vaddr + f_offset);
- link->next = first_page->freelist;
+ link->next = (void *)get_freeobj(first_page);
  if (class->huge)
  set_page_private(first_page, 0);
  kunmap_atomic(vaddr);
- first_page->freelist = (void *)obj;
- first_page->inuse--;
+ set_freeobj(first_page, obj);
+ mod_zspage_inuse(first_page, -1);
  zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_USED, 1);
 }
 
@@ -1569,7 +1607,7 @@ static unsigned long find_alloced_obj(struct size_class *class,
  void *addr = kmap_atomic(page);
 
  if (!is_first_page(page))
- offset = page->index;
+ offset = get_first_obj_offset(page);
  offset += class->size * index;
 
  while (offset < PAGE_SIZE) {
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 09/12] zsmalloc: separate free_zspage from putback_zspage

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
Currently, putback_zspage does free zspage under class->lock
if fullness become ZS_EMPTY but it makes trouble to implement
locking scheme for new zspage migration.
So, this patch is to separate free_zspage from putback_zspage
and free zspage out of class->lock which is preparation for
zspage migration.

Reviewed-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 mm/zsmalloc.c | 27 +++++++++++----------------
 1 file changed, 11 insertions(+), 16 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/zsmalloc.c b/mm/zsmalloc.c
index b24842bd4537..8fc16cc4d76d 100644
--- a/mm/zsmalloc.c
+++ b/mm/zsmalloc.c
@@ -1683,14 +1683,12 @@ static struct zspage *isolate_zspage(struct size_class *class, bool source)
 
 /*
  * putback_zspage - add @zspage into right class's fullness list
- * @pool: target pool
  * @class: destination class
  * @zspage: target page
  *
  * Return @zspage's fullness_group
  */
-static enum fullness_group putback_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool,
- struct size_class *class,
+static enum fullness_group putback_zspage(struct size_class *class,
  struct zspage *zspage)
 {
  enum fullness_group fullness;
@@ -1699,15 +1697,6 @@ static enum fullness_group putback_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool,
  insert_zspage(class, zspage, fullness);
  set_zspage_mapping(zspage, class->index, fullness);
 
- if (fullness == ZS_EMPTY) {
- zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
- class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
- atomic_long_sub(class->pages_per_zspage,
- &pool->pages_allocated);
-
- free_zspage(pool, zspage);
- }
-
  return fullness;
 }
 
@@ -1756,23 +1745,29 @@ static void __zs_compact(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class)
  if (!migrate_zspage(pool, class, &cc))
  break;
 
- putback_zspage(pool, class, dst_zspage);
+ putback_zspage(class, dst_zspage);
  }
 
  /* Stop if we couldn't find slot */
  if (dst_zspage == NULL)
  break;
 
- putback_zspage(pool, class, dst_zspage);
- if (putback_zspage(pool, class, src_zspage) == ZS_EMPTY)
+ putback_zspage(class, dst_zspage);
+ if (putback_zspage(class, src_zspage) == ZS_EMPTY) {
+ zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
+ class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
+ atomic_long_sub(class->pages_per_zspage,
+ &pool->pages_allocated);
+ free_zspage(pool, src_zspage);
  pool->stats.pages_compacted += class->pages_per_zspage;
+ }
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
  cond_resched();
  spin_lock(&class->lock);
  }
 
  if (src_zspage)
- putback_zspage(pool, class, src_zspage);
+ putback_zspage(class, src_zspage);
 
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
 }
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 08/12] zsmalloc: introduce zspage structure

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
We have squeezed meta data of zspage into first page's descriptor.
So, to get meta data from subpage, we should get first page first
of all. But it makes trouble to implment page migration feature
of zsmalloc because any place where to get first page from subpage
can be raced with first page migration. IOW, first page it got
could be stale. For preventing it, I have tried several approahces
but it made code complicated so finally, I concluded to separate
metadata from first page. Of course, it consumes more memory. IOW,
16bytes per zspage on 32bit at the moment. It means we lost 1%
at *worst case*(40B/4096B) which is not bad I think at the cost of
maintenance.

Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 mm/compaction.c |   1 -
 mm/zsmalloc.c   | 531 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------------------------
 2 files changed, 242 insertions(+), 290 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/compaction.c b/mm/compaction.c
index 95877987b3c5..8e5ff00e7adc 100644
--- a/mm/compaction.c
+++ b/mm/compaction.c
@@ -15,7 +15,6 @@
 #include <linux/backing-dev.h>
 #include <linux/sysctl.h>
 #include <linux/sysfs.h>
-#include <linux/balloon_compaction.h>
 #include <linux/page-isolation.h>
 #include <linux/kasan.h>
 #include <linux/kthread.h>
diff --git a/mm/zsmalloc.c b/mm/zsmalloc.c
index 2d1e4961905e..b24842bd4537 100644
--- a/mm/zsmalloc.c
+++ b/mm/zsmalloc.c
@@ -16,26 +16,11 @@
  * struct page(s) to form a zspage.
  *
  * Usage of struct page fields:
- * page->private: points to the first component (0-order) page
- * page->index (union with page->freelist): offset of the first object
- * starting in this page. For the first page, this is
- * always 0, so we use this field (aka freelist) to point
- * to the first free object in zspage.
- * page->lru: links together all component pages (except the first page)
- * of a zspage
- *
- * For _first_ page only:
- *
- * page->private: refers to the component page after the first page
- * If the page is first_page for huge object, it stores handle.
- * Look at size_class->huge.
- * page->freelist: points to the first free object in zspage.
- * Free objects are linked together using in-place
- * metadata.
- * page->lru: links together first pages of various zspages.
- * Basically forming list of zspages in a fullness group.
- * page->mapping: class index and fullness group of the zspage
- * page->inuse: the number of objects that are used in this zspage
+ * page->private: points to zspage
+ * page->index: offset of the first object starting in this page.
+ * For the first page, this is always 0, so we use this field
+ * to store handle for huge object.
+ * page->next: links together all component pages of a zspage
  *
  * Usage of struct page flags:
  * PG_private: identifies the first component page
@@ -145,7 +130,7 @@
  *  ZS_MIN_ALLOC_SIZE and ZS_SIZE_CLASS_DELTA must be multiple of ZS_ALIGN
  *  (reason above)
  */
-#define ZS_SIZE_CLASS_DELTA (PAGE_SIZE >> 8)
+#define ZS_SIZE_CLASS_DELTA (PAGE_SIZE >> CLASS_BITS)
 
 /*
  * We do not maintain any list for completely empty or full pages
@@ -153,8 +138,6 @@
 enum fullness_group {
  ZS_ALMOST_FULL,
  ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY,
- _ZS_NR_FULLNESS_GROUPS,
-
  ZS_EMPTY,
  ZS_FULL
 };
@@ -203,7 +186,7 @@ static const int fullness_threshold_frac = 4;
 
 struct size_class {
  spinlock_t lock;
- struct page *fullness_list[_ZS_NR_FULLNESS_GROUPS];
+ struct list_head fullness_list[2];
  /*
  * Size of objects stored in this class. Must be multiple
  * of ZS_ALIGN.
@@ -222,7 +205,7 @@ struct size_class {
 
 /*
  * Placed within free objects to form a singly linked list.
- * For every zspage, first_page->freelist gives head of this list.
+ * For every zspage, zspage->freeobj gives head of this list.
  *
  * This must be power of 2 and less than or equal to ZS_ALIGN
  */
@@ -245,6 +228,7 @@ struct zs_pool {
 
  struct size_class **size_class;
  struct kmem_cache *handle_cachep;
+ struct kmem_cache *zspage_cachep;
 
  atomic_long_t pages_allocated;
 
@@ -266,14 +250,19 @@ struct zs_pool {
  * A zspage's class index and fullness group
  * are encoded in its (first)page->mapping
  */
-#define FULLNESS_BITS 4
-#define CLASS_BITS 28
+#define FULLNESS_BITS 2
+#define CLASS_BITS 8
 
-#define FULLNESS_SHIFT 0
-#define CLASS_SHIFT (FULLNESS_SHIFT + FULLNESS_BITS)
-
-#define FULLNESS_MASK ((1UL << FULLNESS_BITS) - 1)
-#define CLASS_MASK ((1UL << CLASS_BITS) - 1)
+struct zspage {
+ struct {
+ unsigned int fullness:FULLNESS_BITS;
+ unsigned int class:CLASS_BITS;
+ };
+ unsigned int inuse;
+ void *freeobj;
+ struct page *first_page;
+ struct list_head list; /* fullness list */
+};
 
 struct mapping_area {
 #ifdef CONFIG_PGTABLE_MAPPING
@@ -285,29 +274,51 @@ struct mapping_area {
  enum zs_mapmode vm_mm; /* mapping mode */
 };
 
-static int create_handle_cache(struct zs_pool *pool)
+static int create_cache(struct zs_pool *pool)
 {
  pool->handle_cachep = kmem_cache_create("zs_handle", ZS_HANDLE_SIZE,
  0, 0, NULL);
- return pool->handle_cachep ? 0 : 1;
+ if (!pool->handle_cachep)
+ return 1;
+
+ pool->zspage_cachep = kmem_cache_create("zspage", sizeof(struct zspage),
+ 0, 0, NULL);
+ if (!pool->zspage_cachep) {
+ kmem_cache_destroy(pool->handle_cachep);
+ pool->handle_cachep = NULL;
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
 }
 
-static void destroy_handle_cache(struct zs_pool *pool)
+static void destroy_cache(struct zs_pool *pool)
 {
  kmem_cache_destroy(pool->handle_cachep);
+ kmem_cache_destroy(pool->zspage_cachep);
 }
 
-static unsigned long alloc_handle(struct zs_pool *pool, gfp_t gfp)
+static unsigned long cache_alloc_handle(struct zs_pool *pool, gfp_t gfp)
 {
  return (unsigned long)kmem_cache_alloc(pool->handle_cachep,
  gfp & ~__GFP_HIGHMEM);
 }
 
-static void free_handle(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
+static void cache_free_handle(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
 {
  kmem_cache_free(pool->handle_cachep, (void *)handle);
 }
 
+static struct zspage *cache_alloc_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, gfp_t flags)
+{
+ return kmem_cache_alloc(pool->zspage_cachep, flags & ~__GFP_HIGHMEM);
+};
+
+static void cache_free_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct zspage *zspage)
+{
+ kmem_cache_free(pool->zspage_cachep, zspage);
+}
+
 static void record_obj(unsigned long handle, unsigned long obj)
 {
  /*
@@ -415,67 +426,61 @@ static int is_first_page(struct page *page)
  return PagePrivate(page);
 }
 
-static int is_last_page(struct page *page)
-{
- return PagePrivate2(page);
-}
-
-static inline int get_zspage_inuse(struct page *first_page)
+static inline int get_zspage_inuse(struct zspage *zspage)
 {
- return first_page->inuse;
+ return zspage->inuse;
 }
 
-static inline void set_zspage_inuse(struct page *first_page, int val)
+static inline void set_zspage_inuse(struct zspage *zspage, int val)
 {
- first_page->inuse = val;
+ zspage->inuse = val;
 }
 
-static inline void mod_zspage_inuse(struct page *first_page, int val)
+static inline void mod_zspage_inuse(struct zspage *zspage, int val)
 {
- first_page->inuse += val;
+ zspage->inuse += val;
 }
 
 static inline int get_first_obj_offset(struct page *page)
 {
+ if (is_first_page(page))
+ return 0;
+
  return page->index;
 }
 
 static inline void set_first_obj_offset(struct page *page, int offset)
 {
+ if (is_first_page(page))
+ return;
+
  page->index = offset;
 }
 
-static inline unsigned long get_freeobj(struct page *first_page)
+static inline unsigned long get_freeobj(struct zspage *zspage)
 {
- return (unsigned long)first_page->freelist;
+ return (unsigned long)zspage->freeobj;
 }
 
-static inline void set_freeobj(struct page *first_page, unsigned long obj)
+static inline void set_freeobj(struct zspage *zspage, unsigned long obj)
 {
- first_page->freelist = (void *)obj;
+ zspage->freeobj = (void *)obj;
 }
 
-static void get_zspage_mapping(struct page *first_page,
+static void get_zspage_mapping(struct zspage *zspage,
  unsigned int *class_idx,
  enum fullness_group *fullness)
 {
- unsigned long m;
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
-
- m = (unsigned long)first_page->mapping;
- *fullness = (m >> FULLNESS_SHIFT) & FULLNESS_MASK;
- *class_idx = (m >> CLASS_SHIFT) & CLASS_MASK;
+ *fullness = zspage->fullness;
+ *class_idx = zspage->class;
 }
 
-static void set_zspage_mapping(struct page *first_page,
+static void set_zspage_mapping(struct zspage *zspage,
  unsigned int class_idx,
  enum fullness_group fullness)
 {
- unsigned long m;
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
-
- m = (class_idx << CLASS_SHIFT) | (fullness << FULLNESS_SHIFT);
- first_page->mapping = (struct address_space *)m;
+ zspage->class = class_idx;
+ zspage->fullness = fullness;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -665,14 +670,12 @@ static inline void zs_pool_stat_destroy(struct zs_pool *pool)
  * status of the given page.
  */
 static enum fullness_group get_fullness_group(struct size_class *class,
- struct page *first_page)
+ struct zspage *zspage)
 {
  int inuse, objs_per_zspage;
  enum fullness_group fg;
 
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
-
- inuse = get_zspage_inuse(first_page);
+ inuse = get_zspage_inuse(zspage);
  objs_per_zspage = class->objs_per_zspage;
 
  if (inuse == 0)
@@ -694,32 +697,31 @@ static enum fullness_group get_fullness_group(struct size_class *class,
  * identified by <class, fullness_group>.
  */
 static void insert_zspage(struct size_class *class,
- enum fullness_group fullness,
- struct page *first_page)
+ struct zspage *zspage,
+ enum fullness_group fullness)
 {
- struct page **head;
-
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
+ struct zspage *head;
 
- if (fullness >= _ZS_NR_FULLNESS_GROUPS)
+ if (fullness >= ZS_EMPTY)
  return;
 
+ head = list_first_entry_or_null(&class->fullness_list[fullness],
+ struct zspage, list);
+
  zs_stat_inc(class, fullness == ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY ?
  CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY : CLASS_ALMOST_FULL, 1);
 
- head = &class->fullness_list[fullness];
- if (!*head) {
- *head = first_page;
- return;
- }
-
  /*
- * We want to see more ZS_FULL pages and less almost
- * empty/full. Put pages with higher ->inuse first.
+ * We want to see more ZS_FULL pages and less almost empty/full.
+ * Put pages with higher ->inuse first.
  */
- list_add_tail(&first_page->lru, &(*head)->lru);
- if (get_zspage_inuse(first_page) >= get_zspage_inuse(*head))
- *head = first_page;
+ if (head) {
+ if (get_zspage_inuse(zspage) < get_zspage_inuse(head)) {
+ list_add(&zspage->list, &head->list);
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+ list_add(&zspage->list, &class->fullness_list[fullness]);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -727,25 +729,15 @@ static void insert_zspage(struct size_class *class,
  * by <class, fullness_group>.
  */
 static void remove_zspage(struct size_class *class,
- enum fullness_group fullness,
- struct page *first_page)
+ struct zspage *zspage,
+ enum fullness_group fullness)
 {
- struct page **head;
-
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
-
- if (fullness >= _ZS_NR_FULLNESS_GROUPS)
+ if (fullness >= ZS_EMPTY)
  return;
 
- head = &class->fullness_list[fullness];
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!*head, first_page);
- if (list_empty(&(*head)->lru))
- *head = NULL;
- else if (*head == first_page)
- *head = (struct page *)list_entry((*head)->lru.next,
- struct page, lru);
+ VM_BUG_ON(list_empty(&class->fullness_list[fullness]));
 
- list_del_init(&first_page->lru);
+ list_del_init(&zspage->list);
  zs_stat_dec(class, fullness == ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY ?
  CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY : CLASS_ALMOST_FULL, 1);
 }
@@ -760,19 +752,19 @@ static void remove_zspage(struct size_class *class,
  * fullness group.
  */
 static enum fullness_group fix_fullness_group(struct size_class *class,
- struct page *first_page)
+ struct zspage *zspage)
 {
  int class_idx;
  enum fullness_group currfg, newfg;
 
- get_zspage_mapping(first_page, &class_idx, &currfg);
- newfg = get_fullness_group(class, first_page);
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &currfg);
+ newfg = get_fullness_group(class, zspage);
  if (newfg == currfg)
  goto out;
 
- remove_zspage(class, currfg, first_page);
- insert_zspage(class, newfg, first_page);
- set_zspage_mapping(first_page, class_idx, newfg);
+ remove_zspage(class, zspage, currfg);
+ insert_zspage(class, zspage, newfg);
+ set_zspage_mapping(zspage, class_idx, newfg);
 
 out:
  return newfg;
@@ -814,31 +806,15 @@ static int get_pages_per_zspage(int class_size)
  return max_usedpc_order;
 }
 
-/*
- * A single 'zspage' is composed of many system pages which are
- * linked together using fields in struct page. This function finds
- * the first/head page, given any component page of a zspage.
- */
-static struct page *get_first_page(struct page *page)
+
+static struct zspage *get_zspage(struct page *page)
 {
- if (is_first_page(page))
- return page;
- else
- return (struct page *)page_private(page);
+ return (struct zspage *)page->private;
 }
 
 static struct page *get_next_page(struct page *page)
 {
- struct page *next;
-
- if (is_last_page(page))
- next = NULL;
- else if (is_first_page(page))
- next = (struct page *)page_private(page);
- else
- next = list_entry(page->lru.next, struct page, lru);
-
- return next;
+ return page->next;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -884,7 +860,7 @@ static unsigned long obj_to_head(struct size_class *class, struct page *page,
 {
  if (class->huge) {
  VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(page), page);
- return page_private(page);
+ return page->index;
  } else
  return *(unsigned long *)obj;
 }
@@ -892,10 +868,9 @@ static unsigned long obj_to_head(struct size_class *class, struct page *page,
 static unsigned long obj_idx_to_offset(struct page *page,
  unsigned long obj_idx, int class_size)
 {
- unsigned long off = 0;
+ unsigned long off;
 
- if (!is_first_page(page))
- off = get_first_obj_offset(page);
+ off = get_first_obj_offset(page);
 
  return off + obj_idx * class_size;
 }
@@ -920,44 +895,31 @@ static void reset_page(struct page *page)
  clear_bit(PG_private, &page->flags);
  clear_bit(PG_private_2, &page->flags);
  set_page_private(page, 0);
- page->mapping = NULL;
- page->freelist = NULL;
- page_mapcount_reset(page);
+ page->index = 0;
 }
 
-static void free_zspage(struct page *first_page)
+static void free_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct zspage *zspage)
 {
- struct page *nextp, *tmp, *head_extra;
+ struct page *page, *next;
 
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(get_zspage_inuse(first_page), first_page);
+ VM_BUG_ON(get_zspage_inuse(zspage));
 
- head_extra = (struct page *)page_private(first_page);
+ next = page = zspage->first_page;
+ do {
+ next = page->next;
+ reset_page(page);
+ put_page(page);
+ page = next;
+ } while (page != NULL);
 
- reset_page(first_page);
- __free_page(first_page);
-
- /* zspage with only 1 system page */
- if (!head_extra)
- return;
-
- list_for_each_entry_safe(nextp, tmp, &head_extra->lru, lru) {
- list_del(&nextp->lru);
- reset_page(nextp);
- __free_page(nextp);
- }
- reset_page(head_extra);
- __free_page(head_extra);
+ cache_free_zspage(pool, zspage);
 }
 
 /* Initialize a newly allocated zspage */
-static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
+static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage)
 {
  unsigned long off = 0;
- struct page *page = first_page;
-
- first_page->freelist = NULL;
- set_zspage_inuse(first_page, 0);
+ struct page *page = zspage->first_page;
 
  while (page) {
  struct page *next_page;
@@ -965,14 +927,7 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
  unsigned int i = 1;
  void *vaddr;
 
- /*
- * page->index stores offset of first object starting
- * in the page. For the first page, this is always 0,
- * so we use first_page->index (aka ->freelist) to store
- * head of corresponding zspage's freelist.
- */
- if (page != first_page)
- set_first_obj_offset(page, off);
+ set_first_obj_offset(page, off);
 
  vaddr = kmap_atomic(page);
  link = (struct link_free *)vaddr + off / sizeof(*link);
@@ -994,44 +949,38 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
  off %= PAGE_SIZE;
  }
 
- set_freeobj(first_page, (unsigned long)location_to_obj(first_page, 0));
+ set_freeobj(zspage,
+ (unsigned long)location_to_obj(zspage->first_page, 0));
 }
 
-static void create_page_chain(struct page *pages[], int nr_pages)
+static void create_page_chain(struct zspage *zspage, struct page *pages[],
+ int nr_pages)
 {
  int i;
  struct page *page;
  struct page *prev_page = NULL;
- struct page *first_page = NULL;
 
  /*
  * Allocate individual pages and link them together as:
- * 1. first page->private = first sub-page
- * 2. all sub-pages are linked together using page->lru
- * 3. each sub-page is linked to the first page using page->private
+ * 1. all pages are linked together using page->next
+ * 2. each sub-page point to zspage using page->private
  *
- * For each size class, First/Head pages are linked together using
- * page->lru. Also, we set PG_private to identify the first page
- * (i.e. no other sub-page has this flag set) and PG_private_2 to
- * identify the last page.
+ * we set PG_private to identify the first page (i.e. no other sub-page
+ * has this flag set) and PG_private_2 to identify the last page.
  */
  for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
  page = pages[i];
-
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&page->lru);
+ set_page_private(page, (unsigned long)zspage);
  if (i == 0) {
+ zspage->first_page = page;
  SetPagePrivate(page);
- set_page_private(page, 0);
- first_page = page;
+ } else {
+ prev_page->next = page;
  }
- if (i == 1)
- set_page_private(first_page, (unsigned long)page);
- if (i >= 1)
- set_page_private(page, (unsigned long)first_page);
- if (i >= 2)
- list_add(&page->lru, &prev_page->lru);
- if (i == nr_pages - 1)
+ if (i == nr_pages - 1) {
  SetPagePrivate2(page);
+ page->next = NULL;
+ }
  prev_page = page;
  }
 }
@@ -1039,43 +988,51 @@ static void create_page_chain(struct page *pages[], int nr_pages)
 /*
  * Allocate a zspage for the given size class
  */
-static struct page *alloc_zspage(struct size_class *class, gfp_t flags)
+static struct zspage *alloc_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool,
+ struct size_class *class,
+ gfp_t gfp)
 {
  int i;
- struct page *first_page = NULL;
  struct page *pages[ZS_MAX_PAGES_PER_ZSPAGE];
+ struct zspage *zspage = cache_alloc_zspage(pool, gfp);
+
+ if (!zspage)
+ return NULL;
+
+ memset(zspage, 0, sizeof(struct zspage));
 
  for (i = 0; i < class->pages_per_zspage; i++) {
  struct page *page;
 
- page = alloc_page(flags);
+ page = alloc_page(gfp);
  if (!page) {
  while (--i >= 0)
  __free_page(pages[i]);
+ cache_free_zspage(pool, zspage);
  return NULL;
  }
  pages[i] = page;
  }
 
- create_page_chain(pages, class->pages_per_zspage);
- first_page = pages[0];
- init_zspage(class, first_page);
+ create_page_chain(zspage, pages, class->pages_per_zspage);
+ init_zspage(class, zspage);
 
- return first_page;
+ return zspage;
 }
 
-static struct page *find_get_zspage(struct size_class *class)
+static struct zspage *find_get_zspage(struct size_class *class)
 {
  int i;
- struct page *page;
+ struct zspage *zspage;
 
- for (i = 0; i < _ZS_NR_FULLNESS_GROUPS; i++) {
- page = class->fullness_list[i];
- if (page)
+ for (i = ZS_ALMOST_FULL; i <= ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY; i++) {
+ zspage = list_first_entry_or_null(&class->fullness_list[i],
+ struct zspage, list);
+ if (zspage)
  break;
  }
 
- return page;
+ return zspage;
 }
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_PGTABLE_MAPPING
@@ -1280,11 +1237,9 @@ static bool can_merge(struct size_class *prev, int size, int pages_per_zspage)
  return true;
 }
 
-static bool zspage_full(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
+static bool zspage_full(struct size_class *class, struct zspage *zspage)
 {
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
-
- return get_zspage_inuse(first_page) == class->objs_per_zspage;
+ return get_zspage_inuse(zspage) == class->objs_per_zspage;
 }
 
 unsigned long zs_get_total_pages(struct zs_pool *pool)
@@ -1310,6 +1265,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_get_total_pages);
 void *zs_map_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle,
  enum zs_mapmode mm)
 {
+ struct zspage *zspage;
  struct page *page;
  unsigned long obj, obj_idx, off;
 
@@ -1332,7 +1288,8 @@ void *zs_map_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle,
 
  obj = handle_to_obj(handle);
  obj_to_location(obj, &page, &obj_idx);
- get_zspage_mapping(get_first_page(page), &class_idx, &fg);
+ zspage = get_zspage(page);
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fg);
  class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
  off = obj_idx_to_offset(page, obj_idx, class->size);
 
@@ -1361,6 +1318,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_map_object);
 
 void zs_unmap_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
 {
+ struct zspage *zspage;
  struct page *page;
  unsigned long obj, obj_idx, off;
 
@@ -1371,7 +1329,8 @@ void zs_unmap_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
 
  obj = handle_to_obj(handle);
  obj_to_location(obj, &page, &obj_idx);
- get_zspage_mapping(get_first_page(page), &class_idx, &fg);
+ zspage = get_zspage(page);
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fg);
  class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
  off = obj_idx_to_offset(page, obj_idx, class->size);
 
@@ -1393,7 +1352,7 @@ void zs_unmap_object(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_unmap_object);
 
 static unsigned long obj_malloc(struct size_class *class,
- struct page *first_page, unsigned long handle)
+ struct zspage *zspage, unsigned long handle)
 {
  unsigned long obj;
  struct link_free *link;
@@ -1403,21 +1362,22 @@ static unsigned long obj_malloc(struct size_class *class,
  void *vaddr;
 
  handle |= OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
- obj = get_freeobj(first_page);
+ obj = get_freeobj(zspage);
  obj_to_location(obj, &m_page, &m_objidx);
  m_offset = obj_idx_to_offset(m_page, m_objidx, class->size);
 
  vaddr = kmap_atomic(m_page);
  link = (struct link_free *)vaddr + m_offset / sizeof(*link);
- set_freeobj(first_page, (unsigned long)link->next);
+ set_freeobj(zspage, (unsigned long)link->next);
  if (!class->huge)
  /* record handle in the header of allocated chunk */
  link->handle = handle;
  else
- /* record handle in first_page->private */
- set_page_private(first_page, handle);
+ /* record handle to page->index */
+ zspage->first_page->index = handle;
+
  kunmap_atomic(vaddr);
- mod_zspage_inuse(first_page, 1);
+ mod_zspage_inuse(zspage, 1);
  zs_stat_inc(class, OBJ_USED, 1);
 
  return obj;
@@ -1437,12 +1397,12 @@ unsigned long zs_malloc(struct zs_pool *pool, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)
 {
  unsigned long handle, obj;
  struct size_class *class;
- struct page *first_page;
+ struct zspage *zspage;
 
  if (unlikely(!size || size > ZS_MAX_ALLOC_SIZE))
  return 0;
 
- handle = alloc_handle(pool, gfp);
+ handle = cache_alloc_handle(pool, gfp);
  if (!handle)
  return 0;
 
@@ -1451,17 +1411,17 @@ unsigned long zs_malloc(struct zs_pool *pool, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)
  class = pool->size_class[get_size_class_index(size)];
 
  spin_lock(&class->lock);
- first_page = find_get_zspage(class);
+ zspage = find_get_zspage(class);
 
- if (!first_page) {
+ if (!zspage) {
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
- first_page = alloc_zspage(class, gfp);
- if (unlikely(!first_page)) {
- free_handle(pool, handle);
+ zspage = alloc_zspage(pool, class, gfp);
+ if (unlikely(!zspage)) {
+ cache_free_handle(pool, handle);
  return 0;
  }
 
- set_zspage_mapping(first_page, class->index, ZS_EMPTY);
+ set_zspage_mapping(zspage, class->index, ZS_EMPTY);
  atomic_long_add(class->pages_per_zspage,
  &pool->pages_allocated);
 
@@ -1470,9 +1430,9 @@ unsigned long zs_malloc(struct zs_pool *pool, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)
  class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
  }
 
- obj = obj_malloc(class, first_page, handle);
+ obj = obj_malloc(class, zspage, handle);
  /* Now move the zspage to another fullness group, if required */
- fix_fullness_group(class, first_page);
+ fix_fullness_group(class, zspage);
  record_obj(handle, obj);
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
 
@@ -1483,13 +1443,14 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_malloc);
 static void obj_free(struct size_class *class, unsigned long obj)
 {
  struct link_free *link;
- struct page *first_page, *f_page;
+ struct zspage *zspage;
+ struct page *f_page;
  unsigned long f_objidx, f_offset;
  void *vaddr;
 
  obj &= ~OBJ_ALLOCATED_TAG;
  obj_to_location(obj, &f_page, &f_objidx);
- first_page = get_first_page(f_page);
+ zspage = get_zspage(f_page);
 
  f_offset = obj_idx_to_offset(f_page, f_objidx, class->size);
 
@@ -1497,18 +1458,17 @@ static void obj_free(struct size_class *class, unsigned long obj)
 
  /* Insert this object in containing zspage's freelist */
  link = (struct link_free *)(vaddr + f_offset);
- link->next = (void *)get_freeobj(first_page);
- if (class->huge)
- set_page_private(first_page, 0);
+ link->next = (void *)get_freeobj(zspage);
  kunmap_atomic(vaddr);
- set_freeobj(first_page, obj);
- mod_zspage_inuse(first_page, -1);
+ set_freeobj(zspage, obj);
+ mod_zspage_inuse(zspage, -1);
  zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_USED, 1);
 }
 
 void zs_free(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
 {
- struct page *first_page, *f_page;
+ struct zspage *zspage;
+ struct page *f_page;
  unsigned long obj, f_objidx;
  int class_idx;
  struct size_class *class;
@@ -1520,25 +1480,25 @@ void zs_free(struct zs_pool *pool, unsigned long handle)
  pin_tag(handle);
  obj = handle_to_obj(handle);
  obj_to_location(obj, &f_page, &f_objidx);
- first_page = get_first_page(f_page);
+ zspage = get_zspage(f_page);
 
- get_zspage_mapping(first_page, &class_idx, &fullness);
+ get_zspage_mapping(zspage, &class_idx, &fullness);
  class = pool->size_class[class_idx];
 
  spin_lock(&class->lock);
  obj_free(class, obj);
- fullness = fix_fullness_group(class, first_page);
+ fullness = fix_fullness_group(class, zspage);
  if (fullness == ZS_EMPTY) {
  zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
  class->size, class->pages_per_zspage));
  atomic_long_sub(class->pages_per_zspage,
  &pool->pages_allocated);
- free_zspage(first_page);
+ free_zspage(pool, zspage);
  }
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
  unpin_tag(handle);
 
- free_handle(pool, handle);
+ cache_free_handle(pool, handle);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(zs_free);
 
@@ -1617,8 +1577,7 @@ static unsigned long find_alloced_obj(struct size_class *class,
  unsigned long handle = 0;
  void *addr = kmap_atomic(page);
 
- if (!is_first_page(page))
- offset = get_first_obj_offset(page);
+ offset = get_first_obj_offset(page);
  offset += class->size * index;
 
  while (offset < PAGE_SIZE) {
@@ -1639,7 +1598,7 @@ static unsigned long find_alloced_obj(struct size_class *class,
 }
 
 struct zs_compact_control {
- /* Source page for migration which could be a subpage of zspage. */
+ /* Source spage for migration which could be a subpage of zspage */
  struct page *s_page;
  /* Destination page for migration which should be a first page
  * of zspage. */
@@ -1670,14 +1629,14 @@ static int migrate_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class,
  }
 
  /* Stop if there is no more space */
- if (zspage_full(class, d_page)) {
+ if (zspage_full(class, get_zspage(d_page))) {
  unpin_tag(handle);
  ret = -ENOMEM;
  break;
  }
 
  used_obj = handle_to_obj(handle);
- free_obj = obj_malloc(class, d_page, handle);
+ free_obj = obj_malloc(class, get_zspage(d_page), handle);
  zs_object_copy(class, free_obj, used_obj);
  index++;
  /*
@@ -1699,39 +1658,46 @@ static int migrate_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class,
  return ret;
 }
 
-static struct page *isolate_target_page(struct size_class *class)
+static struct zspage *isolate_zspage(struct size_class *class, bool source)
 {
  int i;
- struct page *page;
+ struct zspage *zspage;
+ enum fullness_group fg[2] = {ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY, ZS_ALMOST_FULL};
 
- for (i = 0; i < _ZS_NR_FULLNESS_GROUPS; i++) {
- page = class->fullness_list[i];
- if (page) {
- remove_zspage(class, i, page);
- break;
+ if (!source) {
+ fg[0] = ZS_ALMOST_FULL;
+ fg[1] = ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY;
+ }
+
+ for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) {
+ zspage = list_first_entry_or_null(&class->fullness_list[fg[i]],
+ struct zspage, list);
+ if (zspage) {
+ remove_zspage(class, zspage, fg[i]);
+ return zspage;
  }
  }
 
- return page;
+ return zspage;
 }
 
 /*
- * putback_zspage - add @first_page into right class's fullness list
+ * putback_zspage - add @zspage into right class's fullness list
  * @pool: target pool
  * @class: destination class
- * @first_page: target page
+ * @zspage: target page
  *
- * Return @fist_page's fullness_group
+ * Return @zspage's fullness_group
  */
 static enum fullness_group putback_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool,
  struct size_class *class,
- struct page *first_page)
+ struct zspage *zspage)
 {
  enum fullness_group fullness;
 
- fullness = get_fullness_group(class, first_page);
- insert_zspage(class, fullness, first_page);
- set_zspage_mapping(first_page, class->index, fullness);
+ fullness = get_fullness_group(class, zspage);
+ insert_zspage(class, zspage, fullness);
+ set_zspage_mapping(zspage, class->index, fullness);
 
  if (fullness == ZS_EMPTY) {
  zs_stat_dec(class, OBJ_ALLOCATED, get_maxobj_per_zspage(
@@ -1739,29 +1705,12 @@ static enum fullness_group putback_zspage(struct zs_pool *pool,
  atomic_long_sub(class->pages_per_zspage,
  &pool->pages_allocated);
 
- free_zspage(first_page);
+ free_zspage(pool, zspage);
  }
 
  return fullness;
 }
 
-static struct page *isolate_source_page(struct size_class *class)
-{
- int i;
- struct page *page = NULL;
-
- for (i = ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY; i >= ZS_ALMOST_FULL; i--) {
- page = class->fullness_list[i];
- if (!page)
- continue;
-
- remove_zspage(class, i, page);
- break;
- }
-
- return page;
-}
-
 /*
  *
  * Based on the number of unused allocated objects calculate
@@ -1786,20 +1735,20 @@ static unsigned long zs_can_compact(struct size_class *class)
 static void __zs_compact(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class)
 {
  struct zs_compact_control cc;
- struct page *src_page;
- struct page *dst_page = NULL;
+ struct zspage *src_zspage;
+ struct zspage *dst_zspage = NULL;
 
  spin_lock(&class->lock);
- while ((src_page = isolate_source_page(class))) {
+ while ((src_zspage = isolate_zspage(class, true))) {
 
  if (!zs_can_compact(class))
  break;
 
  cc.index = 0;
- cc.s_page = src_page;
+ cc.s_page = src_zspage->first_page;
 
- while ((dst_page = isolate_target_page(class))) {
- cc.d_page = dst_page;
+ while ((dst_zspage = isolate_zspage(class, false))) {
+ cc.d_page = dst_zspage->first_page;
  /*
  * If there is no more space in dst_page, resched
  * and see if anyone had allocated another zspage.
@@ -1807,23 +1756,23 @@ static void __zs_compact(struct zs_pool *pool, struct size_class *class)
  if (!migrate_zspage(pool, class, &cc))
  break;
 
- putback_zspage(pool, class, dst_page);
+ putback_zspage(pool, class, dst_zspage);
  }
 
  /* Stop if we couldn't find slot */
- if (dst_page == NULL)
+ if (dst_zspage == NULL)
  break;
 
- putback_zspage(pool, class, dst_page);
- if (putback_zspage(pool, class, src_page) == ZS_EMPTY)
+ putback_zspage(pool, class, dst_zspage);
+ if (putback_zspage(pool, class, src_zspage) == ZS_EMPTY)
  pool->stats.pages_compacted += class->pages_per_zspage;
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
  cond_resched();
  spin_lock(&class->lock);
  }
 
- if (src_page)
- putback_zspage(pool, class, src_page);
+ if (src_zspage)
+ putback_zspage(pool, class, src_zspage);
 
  spin_unlock(&class->lock);
 }
@@ -1941,7 +1890,7 @@ struct zs_pool *zs_create_pool(const char *name)
  if (!pool->name)
  goto err;
 
- if (create_handle_cache(pool))
+ if (create_cache(pool))
  goto err;
 
  /*
@@ -1952,6 +1901,7 @@ struct zs_pool *zs_create_pool(const char *name)
  int size;
  int pages_per_zspage;
  struct size_class *class;
+ int fullness = 0;
 
  size = ZS_MIN_ALLOC_SIZE + i * ZS_SIZE_CLASS_DELTA;
  if (size > ZS_MAX_ALLOC_SIZE)
@@ -1987,6 +1937,9 @@ struct zs_pool *zs_create_pool(const char *name)
  class->huge = true;
  spin_lock_init(&class->lock);
  pool->size_class[i] = class;
+ for (fullness = ZS_ALMOST_FULL; fullness <= ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY;
+ fullness++)
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&class->fullness_list[fullness]);
 
  prev_class = class;
  }
@@ -2025,8 +1978,8 @@ void zs_destroy_pool(struct zs_pool *pool)
  if (class->index != i)
  continue;
 
- for (fg = 0; fg < _ZS_NR_FULLNESS_GROUPS; fg++) {
- if (class->fullness_list[fg]) {
+ for (fg = ZS_ALMOST_FULL; fg <= ZS_ALMOST_EMPTY; fg++) {
+ if (!list_empty(&class->fullness_list[fg])) {
  pr_info("Freeing non-empty class with size %db, fullness group %d\n",
  class->size, fg);
  }
@@ -2034,7 +1987,7 @@ void zs_destroy_pool(struct zs_pool *pool)
  kfree(class);
  }
 
- destroy_handle_cache(pool);
+ destroy_cache(pool);
  kfree(pool->size_class);
  kfree(pool->name);
  kfree(pool);
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 07/12] zsmalloc: factor page chain functionality out

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
For page migration, we need to create page chain of zspage dynamically
so this patch factors it out from alloc_zspage.

Reviewed-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 mm/zsmalloc.c | 59 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------------------
 1 file changed, 35 insertions(+), 24 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/zsmalloc.c b/mm/zsmalloc.c
index cb342882cde3..2d1e4961905e 100644
--- a/mm/zsmalloc.c
+++ b/mm/zsmalloc.c
@@ -956,7 +956,8 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
  unsigned long off = 0;
  struct page *page = first_page;
 
- VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!is_first_page(first_page), first_page);
+ first_page->freelist = NULL;
+ set_zspage_inuse(first_page, 0);
 
  while (page) {
  struct page *next_page;
@@ -992,15 +993,16 @@ static void init_zspage(struct size_class *class, struct page *first_page)
  page = next_page;
  off %= PAGE_SIZE;
  }
+
+ set_freeobj(first_page, (unsigned long)location_to_obj(first_page, 0));
 }
 
-/*
- * Allocate a zspage for the given size class
- */
-static struct page *alloc_zspage(struct size_class *class, gfp_t flags)
+static void create_page_chain(struct page *pages[], int nr_pages)
 {
- int i, error;
- struct page *first_page = NULL, *uninitialized_var(prev_page);
+ int i;
+ struct page *page;
+ struct page *prev_page = NULL;
+ struct page *first_page = NULL;
 
  /*
  * Allocate individual pages and link them together as:
@@ -1013,20 +1015,14 @@ static struct page *alloc_zspage(struct size_class *class, gfp_t flags)
  * (i.e. no other sub-page has this flag set) and PG_private_2 to
  * identify the last page.
  */
- error = -ENOMEM;
- for (i = 0; i < class->pages_per_zspage; i++) {
- struct page *page;
-
- page = alloc_page(flags);
- if (!page)
- goto cleanup;
+ for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
+ page = pages[i];
 
  INIT_LIST_HEAD(&page->lru);
- if (i == 0) { /* first page */
+ if (i == 0) {
  SetPagePrivate(page);
  set_page_private(page, 0);
  first_page = page;
- set_zspage_inuse(first_page, 0);
  }
  if (i == 1)
  set_page_private(first_page, (unsigned long)page);
@@ -1034,22 +1030,37 @@ static struct page *alloc_zspage(struct size_class *class, gfp_t flags)
  set_page_private(page, (unsigned long)first_page);
  if (i >= 2)
  list_add(&page->lru, &prev_page->lru);
- if (i == class->pages_per_zspage - 1) /* last page */
+ if (i == nr_pages - 1)
  SetPagePrivate2(page);
  prev_page = page;
  }
+}
 
- init_zspage(class, first_page);
+/*
+ * Allocate a zspage for the given size class
+ */
+static struct page *alloc_zspage(struct size_class *class, gfp_t flags)
+{
+ int i;
+ struct page *first_page = NULL;
+ struct page *pages[ZS_MAX_PAGES_PER_ZSPAGE];
 
- set_freeobj(first_page, (unsigned long)location_to_obj(first_page, 0));
- error = 0; /* Success */
+ for (i = 0; i < class->pages_per_zspage; i++) {
+ struct page *page;
 
-cleanup:
- if (unlikely(error) && first_page) {
- free_zspage(first_page);
- first_page = NULL;
+ page = alloc_page(flags);
+ if (!page) {
+ while (--i >= 0)
+ __free_page(pages[i]);
+ return NULL;
+ }
+ pages[i] = page;
  }
 
+ create_page_chain(pages, class->pages_per_zspage);
+ first_page = pages[0];
+ init_zspage(class, first_page);
+
  return first_page;
 }
 
--
1.9.1

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[PATCH v6 05/12] zsmalloc: use bit_spin_lock

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
Use kernel standard bit spin-lock instead of custom mess. Even, it has
a bug which doesn't disable preemption. The reason we don't have any
problem is that we have used it during preemption disable section
by class->lock spinlock. So no need to go to stable.

Reviewed-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <[hidden email]>
---
 mm/zsmalloc.c | 10 +++-------
 1 file changed, 3 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/zsmalloc.c b/mm/zsmalloc.c
index 73a1eb4ffddf..9adaeef578b6 100644
--- a/mm/zsmalloc.c
+++ b/mm/zsmalloc.c
@@ -864,21 +864,17 @@ static unsigned long obj_idx_to_offset(struct page *page,
 
 static inline int trypin_tag(unsigned long handle)
 {
- unsigned long *ptr = (unsigned long *)handle;
-
- return !test_and_set_bit_lock(HANDLE_PIN_BIT, ptr);
+ return bit_spin_trylock(HANDLE_PIN_BIT, (unsigned long *)handle);
 }
 
 static void pin_tag(unsigned long handle)
 {
- while (!trypin_tag(handle));
+ bit_spin_lock(HANDLE_PIN_BIT, (unsigned long *)handle);
 }
 
 static void unpin_tag(unsigned long handle)
 {
- unsigned long *ptr = (unsigned long *)handle;
-
- clear_bit_unlock(HANDLE_PIN_BIT, ptr);
+ bit_spin_unlock(HANDLE_PIN_BIT, (unsigned long *)handle);
 }
 
 static void reset_page(struct page *page)
--
1.9.1

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Re: [PATCH v6 11/12] zsmalloc: page migration support

Sergey Senozhatsky-3
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
On (05/20/16 23:23), Minchan Kim wrote:
[..]
> +static int get_zspage_isolation(struct zspage *zspage)
> +{
> + return zspage->isolated;
> +}
> +

may be is_zspage_isolated()?

[..]

> @@ -502,23 +556,19 @@ static int get_size_class_index(int size)
>  static inline void zs_stat_inc(struct size_class *class,
>   enum zs_stat_type type, unsigned long cnt)
>  {
> - if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
> - class->stats.objs[type] += cnt;
> + class->stats.objs[type] += cnt;
>  }
>  
>  static inline void zs_stat_dec(struct size_class *class,
>   enum zs_stat_type type, unsigned long cnt)
>  {
> - if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
> - class->stats.objs[type] -= cnt;
> + class->stats.objs[type] -= cnt;
>  }
>  
>  static inline unsigned long zs_stat_get(struct size_class *class,
>   enum zs_stat_type type)
>  {
> - if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
> - return class->stats.objs[type];
> - return 0;
> + return class->stats.objs[type];
>  }

hmm... the ordering of STAT types and those if-conditions were here for
a reason:

commit 6fe5186f0c7c18a8beb6d96c21e2390df7a12375
Author: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
Date:   Fri Nov 6 16:29:38 2015 -0800

    zsmalloc: reduce size_class memory usage
   
    Each `struct size_class' contains `struct zs_size_stat': an array of
    NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE `unsigned long'.  For zsmalloc built with no
    CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT this results in a waste of `2 * sizeof(unsigned
    long)' per-class.
   
    The patch removes unneeded `struct zs_size_stat' members by redefining
    NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE (max stat idx in array).
   
    Since both NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE and zs_stat_type are compile time constants,
    GCC can eliminate zs_stat_inc()/zs_stat_dec() calls that use zs_stat_type
    larger than NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE: CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY and CLASS_ALMOST_FULL at
    the moment.
   
    ./scripts/bloat-o-meter mm/zsmalloc.o.old mm/zsmalloc.o.new
    add/remove: 0/0 grow/shrink: 0/3 up/down: 0/-39 (-39)
    function                                     old     new   delta
    fix_fullness_group                            97      94      -3
    insert_zspage                                100      86     -14
    remove_zspage                                141     119     -22
   
    To summarize:
    a) each class now uses less memory
    b) we avoid a number of dec/inc stats (a minor optimization,
       but still).
   
    The gain will increase once we introduce additional stats.

so it helped to eliminate instructions at compile time from a very hot
path for !CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT builds (which is 99% of the builds I think,
I doubt anyone apart from us is using ZSMALLOC_STAT).


[..]

> +static int get_first_obj_offset(struct size_class *class,
> + struct page *first_page, struct page *page)
>  {
> - return page->next;
> + int pos, bound;
> + int page_idx = 0;
> + int ofs = 0;
> + struct page *cursor = first_page;
> +
> + if (first_page == page)
> + goto out;
> +
> + while (page != cursor) {
> + page_idx++;
> + cursor = get_next_page(cursor);
> + }
> +
> + bound = PAGE_SIZE * page_idx;

'bound' not used.


> + pos = (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) *
> + page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size
> +      ) * class->size;


something went wrong with the indentation here :)

so... it's

        (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) * page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size ) * class->size;

the last ' / class->size ) * class->size' can be dropped, I think.

[..]
> + pos += class->size;
> + }
> +
> + /*
> + * Here, any user cannot access all objects in the zspage so let's move.
                 "no one can access any object" ?

[..]

> + spin_lock(&class->lock);
> + dec_zspage_isolation(zspage);
> + if (!get_zspage_isolation(zspage)) {
> + fg = putback_zspage(class, zspage);
> + /*
> + * Due to page_lock, we cannot free zspage immediately
> + * so let's defer.
> + */
> + if (fg == ZS_EMPTY)
> + schedule_work(&pool->free_work);

hm... zsmalloc is getting sooo complex now.

`system_wq' -- can we have problems here when the system is getting
low on memory and workers are getting increasingly busy trying to
allocate the memory for some other purposes?

_theoretically_ zsmalloc can stack a number of ready-to-release zspages,
which won't be accessible to zsmalloc, nor will they be released. how likely
is this? hm, can zsmalloc take zspages from that deferred release list when
it wants to allocate a new zspage?

do you also want to kick the deferred page release from the shrinker
callback, for example?

        -ss
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Re: [PATCH v6 11/12] zsmalloc: page migration support

Minchan Kim-2
On Tue, May 24, 2016 at 02:28:24PM +0900, Sergey Senozhatsky wrote:
> On (05/20/16 23:23), Minchan Kim wrote:
> [..]
> > +static int get_zspage_isolation(struct zspage *zspage)
> > +{
> > + return zspage->isolated;
> > +}
> > +
>
> may be is_zspage_isolated()?

Now, it would be better. I will change it.

>
> [..]
> > @@ -502,23 +556,19 @@ static int get_size_class_index(int size)
> >  static inline void zs_stat_inc(struct size_class *class,
> >   enum zs_stat_type type, unsigned long cnt)
> >  {
> > - if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
> > - class->stats.objs[type] += cnt;
> > + class->stats.objs[type] += cnt;
> >  }
> >  
> >  static inline void zs_stat_dec(struct size_class *class,
> >   enum zs_stat_type type, unsigned long cnt)
> >  {
> > - if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
> > - class->stats.objs[type] -= cnt;
> > + class->stats.objs[type] -= cnt;
> >  }
> >  
> >  static inline unsigned long zs_stat_get(struct size_class *class,
> >   enum zs_stat_type type)
> >  {
> > - if (type < NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE)
> > - return class->stats.objs[type];
> > - return 0;
> > + return class->stats.objs[type];
> >  }
>
> hmm... the ordering of STAT types and those if-conditions were here for
> a reason:
>
> commit 6fe5186f0c7c18a8beb6d96c21e2390df7a12375
> Author: Sergey Senozhatsky <[hidden email]>
> Date:   Fri Nov 6 16:29:38 2015 -0800
>
>     zsmalloc: reduce size_class memory usage
>    
>     Each `struct size_class' contains `struct zs_size_stat': an array of
>     NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE `unsigned long'.  For zsmalloc built with no
>     CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT this results in a waste of `2 * sizeof(unsigned
>     long)' per-class.
>    
>     The patch removes unneeded `struct zs_size_stat' members by redefining
>     NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE (max stat idx in array).
>    
>     Since both NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE and zs_stat_type are compile time constants,
>     GCC can eliminate zs_stat_inc()/zs_stat_dec() calls that use zs_stat_type
>     larger than NR_ZS_STAT_TYPE: CLASS_ALMOST_EMPTY and CLASS_ALMOST_FULL at
>     the moment.
>    
>     ./scripts/bloat-o-meter mm/zsmalloc.o.old mm/zsmalloc.o.new
>     add/remove: 0/0 grow/shrink: 0/3 up/down: 0/-39 (-39)
>     function                                     old     new   delta
>     fix_fullness_group                            97      94      -3
>     insert_zspage                                100      86     -14
>     remove_zspage                                141     119     -22
>    
>     To summarize:
>     a) each class now uses less memory
>     b) we avoid a number of dec/inc stats (a minor optimization,
>        but still).
>    
>     The gain will increase once we introduce additional stats.
>
> so it helped to eliminate instructions at compile time from a very hot
> path for !CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT builds (which is 99% of the builds I think,
> I doubt anyone apart from us is using ZSMALLOC_STAT).

Most important point to me is that it makes code *simple* at the cost of
addtional wasting memory. Now, every zspage lives in *a* list so we don't
need to check zspage groupness to use list_empty of zspage.
I'm not sure how you feel it makes code simple a lot.
However, while I implement page migration logic, the check with condition
that zspage's groupness is either almost_empty and almost_full is really
bogus and tricky to me so I should debug several time to find what's
wrong.

Compared to old, zsmalloc is complicated day by day so I want to weight
on *simple* for easy maintainance.

One more note:
Now, ZS_EMPTY is used as pool. Look at find_get_zspage. So adding
"empty" column in ZSMALLOC_STAT might be worth but I wanted to handle it
as another topic.

So if you don't feel strong the saving is really huge, I want to
go with this. And if we are adding more wasted memory in future,
let's handle it then.

About CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT, It might be off-topic. Frankly speaking,
I have guided production team to enable it because when I profile the
overhead caused by ZSMALLOC_STAT, there is no performance lost
in real workload. However, the stat gives more detailed useful
information.

>
>
> [..]
> > +static int get_first_obj_offset(struct size_class *class,
> > + struct page *first_page, struct page *page)
> >  {
> > - return page->next;
> > + int pos, bound;
> > + int page_idx = 0;
> > + int ofs = 0;
> > + struct page *cursor = first_page;
> > +
> > + if (first_page == page)
> > + goto out;
> > +
> > + while (page != cursor) {
> > + page_idx++;
> > + cursor = get_next_page(cursor);
> > + }
> > +
> > + bound = PAGE_SIZE * page_idx;
>
> 'bound' not used.

-_-;;

>
>
> > + pos = (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) *
> > + page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size
> > +      ) * class->size;
>
>
> something went wrong with the indentation here :)
>
> so... it's
>
> (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) * page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size ) * class->size;
>
> the last ' / class->size ) * class->size' can be dropped, I think.

You prove I didn't learn math.
Will drop it.

>
> [..]
> > + pos += class->size;
> > + }
> > +
> > + /*
> > + * Here, any user cannot access all objects in the zspage so let's move.
>                  "no one can access any object" ?
>
> [..]
> > + spin_lock(&class->lock);
> > + dec_zspage_isolation(zspage);
> > + if (!get_zspage_isolation(zspage)) {
> > + fg = putback_zspage(class, zspage);
> > + /*
> > + * Due to page_lock, we cannot free zspage immediately
> > + * so let's defer.
> > + */
> > + if (fg == ZS_EMPTY)
> > + schedule_work(&pool->free_work);
>
> hm... zsmalloc is getting sooo complex now.
>
> `system_wq' -- can we have problems here when the system is getting
> low on memory and workers are getting increasingly busy trying to
> allocate the memory for some other purposes?
>
> _theoretically_ zsmalloc can stack a number of ready-to-release zspages,
> which won't be accessible to zsmalloc, nor will they be released. how likely
> is this? hm, can zsmalloc take zspages from that deferred release list when
> it wants to allocate a new zspage?

Done.

>
> do you also want to kick the deferred page release from the shrinker
> callback, for example?

Yeb, it can be. I will do it at next revision. :)
Thanks!

>
> -ss
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Re: [PATCH v6 11/12] zsmalloc: page migration support

Sergey Senozhatsky-3
Hello,

On (05/24/16 15:28), Minchan Kim wrote:
[..]

> Most important point to me is that it makes code *simple* at the cost of
> addtional wasting memory. Now, every zspage lives in *a* list so we don't
> need to check zspage groupness to use list_empty of zspage.
> I'm not sure how you feel it makes code simple a lot.
> However, while I implement page migration logic, the check with condition
> that zspage's groupness is either almost_empty and almost_full is really
> bogus and tricky to me so I should debug several time to find what's
> wrong.
>
> Compared to old, zsmalloc is complicated day by day so I want to weight
> on *simple* for easy maintainance.
>
> One more note:
> Now, ZS_EMPTY is used as pool. Look at find_get_zspage. So adding
> "empty" column in ZSMALLOC_STAT might be worth but I wanted to handle it
> as another topic.
>
> So if you don't feel strong the saving is really huge, I want to
> go with this. And if we are adding more wasted memory in future,
> let's handle it then.

oh, sure, all those micro-optimizations can be done later,
off the series.

> About CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT, It might be off-topic. Frankly speaking,
> I have guided production team to enable it because when I profile the
> overhead caused by ZSMALLOC_STAT, there is no performance lost
> in real workload. However, the stat gives more detailed useful
> information.

ok, agree.
good to know that you use stats in production, by the way.

[..]

> > > + pos = (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) *
> > > + page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size
> > > +      ) * class->size;
> >
> >
> > something went wrong with the indentation here :)
> >
> > so... it's
> >
> > (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) * page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size ) * class->size;
> >
> > the last ' / class->size ) * class->size' can be dropped, I think.
>
> You prove I didn't learn math.
> Will drop it.

haha, no, that wasn't the point :) great job with the series!

[..]

> > hm... zsmalloc is getting sooo complex now.
> >
> > `system_wq' -- can we have problems here when the system is getting
> > low on memory and workers are getting increasingly busy trying to
> > allocate the memory for some other purposes?
> >
> > _theoretically_ zsmalloc can stack a number of ready-to-release zspages,
> > which won't be accessible to zsmalloc, nor will they be released. how likely
> > is this? hm, can zsmalloc take zspages from that deferred release list when
> > it wants to allocate a new zspage?
>
> Done.

oh, good. that was a purely theoretical thing, and to continue with the
theories, I assume that zs_malloc() will improve with this change. the
sort of kind of problem with zs_malloc(), *I think*, is that we release
the class ->lock after failed find_get_zspage():

        handle = cache_alloc_handle(pool, gfp);
        if (!handle)
                return 0;

        zspage = find_get_zspage(class);
        if (likely(zspage)) {
                obj = obj_malloc(class, zspage, handle);
                [..]
                spin_unlock(&class->lock);

                return handle;
        }

        spin_unlock(&class->lock);

        zspage = alloc_zspage(pool, class, gfp);
        if (!zspage) {
                cache_free_handle(pool, handle);
                return 0;
        }

        spin_lock(&class->lock);
        obj = obj_malloc(class, zspage, handle);
        [..]
        spin_unlock(&class->lock);


_theoretically_, on a not-really-huge system, let's say 64 CPUs for
example, we can have 64 write paths trying to store objects of size
OBJ_SZ to a ZS_FULL class-OBJSZ. the write path (each of them) will
fail on find_get_zspage(), unlock the class ->lock (so another write
path will have its chance to fail on find_get_zspage()), alloc_zspage(),
create a page chain, spin on class ->lock to add the new zspage to the
class. so we can end up allocating up to 64 zspages, each of them will
carry N PAGE_SIZE pages. those zspages, at least at the beginning, will
store only one object per-zspage; which will blastoff the internal
fragmentation and can cause more compaction/migration/etc later on. well,
it's a bit pessimistic, but I think to _some extent_ this scenario is
quite possible.

I assume that this "pick an already marked for release zspage" thing is
happening as a fast path within the first class ->lock section, so the
rest of concurrent write requests that are spinning on the class ->lock
at the moment will see a zspage, instead of !find_get_zspage().

        -ss
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Re: [PATCH v6 11/12] zsmalloc: page migration support

Minchan Kim-2
On Tue, May 24, 2016 at 05:05:11PM +0900, Sergey Senozhatsky wrote:

> Hello,
>
> On (05/24/16 15:28), Minchan Kim wrote:
> [..]
> > Most important point to me is that it makes code *simple* at the cost of
> > addtional wasting memory. Now, every zspage lives in *a* list so we don't
> > need to check zspage groupness to use list_empty of zspage.
> > I'm not sure how you feel it makes code simple a lot.
> > However, while I implement page migration logic, the check with condition
> > that zspage's groupness is either almost_empty and almost_full is really
> > bogus and tricky to me so I should debug several time to find what's
> > wrong.
> >
> > Compared to old, zsmalloc is complicated day by day so I want to weight
> > on *simple* for easy maintainance.
> >
> > One more note:
> > Now, ZS_EMPTY is used as pool. Look at find_get_zspage. So adding
> > "empty" column in ZSMALLOC_STAT might be worth but I wanted to handle it
> > as another topic.
> >
> > So if you don't feel strong the saving is really huge, I want to
> > go with this. And if we are adding more wasted memory in future,
> > let's handle it then.
>
> oh, sure, all those micro-optimizations can be done later,
> off the series.
>
> > About CONFIG_ZSMALLOC_STAT, It might be off-topic. Frankly speaking,
> > I have guided production team to enable it because when I profile the
> > overhead caused by ZSMALLOC_STAT, there is no performance lost
> > in real workload. However, the stat gives more detailed useful
> > information.
>
> ok, agree.
> good to know that you use stats in production, by the way.
>
> [..]
> > > > + pos = (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) *
> > > > + page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size
> > > > +      ) * class->size;
> > >
> > >
> > > something went wrong with the indentation here :)
> > >
> > > so... it's
> > >
> > > (((class->objs_per_zspage * class->size) * page_idx / class->pages_per_zspage) / class->size ) * class->size;
> > >
> > > the last ' / class->size ) * class->size' can be dropped, I think.
> >
> > You prove I didn't learn math.
> > Will drop it.
>
> haha, no, that wasn't the point :) great job with the series!
>
> [..]
> > > hm... zsmalloc is getting sooo complex now.
> > >
> > > `system_wq' -- can we have problems here when the system is getting
> > > low on memory and workers are getting increasingly busy trying to
> > > allocate the memory for some other purposes?
> > >
> > > _theoretically_ zsmalloc can stack a number of ready-to-release zspages,
> > > which won't be accessible to zsmalloc, nor will they be released. how likely
> > > is this? hm, can zsmalloc take zspages from that deferred release list when
> > > it wants to allocate a new zspage?
> >
> > Done.
>
> oh, good. that was a purely theoretical thing, and to continue with the
> theories, I assume that zs_malloc() will improve with this change. the
> sort of kind of problem with zs_malloc(), *I think*, is that we release
> the class ->lock after failed find_get_zspage():
>
> handle = cache_alloc_handle(pool, gfp);
> if (!handle)
> return 0;
>
> zspage = find_get_zspage(class);
> if (likely(zspage)) {
> obj = obj_malloc(class, zspage, handle);
> [..]
> spin_unlock(&class->lock);
>
> return handle;
> }
>
> spin_unlock(&class->lock);
>
> zspage = alloc_zspage(pool, class, gfp);
> if (!zspage) {
> cache_free_handle(pool, handle);
> return 0;
> }
>
> spin_lock(&class->lock);
> obj = obj_malloc(class, zspage, handle);
> [..]
> spin_unlock(&class->lock);
>
>
> _theoretically_, on a not-really-huge system, let's say 64 CPUs for
> example, we can have 64 write paths trying to store objects of size
> OBJ_SZ to a ZS_FULL class-OBJSZ. the write path (each of them) will
> fail on find_get_zspage(), unlock the class ->lock (so another write
> path will have its chance to fail on find_get_zspage()), alloc_zspage(),
> create a page chain, spin on class ->lock to add the new zspage to the
> class. so we can end up allocating up to 64 zspages, each of them will
> carry N PAGE_SIZE pages. those zspages, at least at the beginning, will
> store only one object per-zspage; which will blastoff the internal
> fragmentation and can cause more compaction/migration/etc later on. well,
> it's a bit pessimistic, but I think to _some extent_ this scenario is
> quite possible.
>
> I assume that this "pick an already marked for release zspage" thing is
> happening as a fast path within the first class ->lock section, so the
> rest of concurrent write requests that are spinning on the class ->lock
> at the moment will see a zspage, instead of !find_get_zspage().

As well, we would reduce page alloc/free cost although it's not expensive
compared to comp overhead. :)

Thanks for giving the thought!

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Re: [PATCH v6 11/12] zsmalloc: page migration support

Minchan Kim-2
In reply to this post by Minchan Kim-2
Hello Sergey,

On Tue, May 24, 2016 at 03:28:01PM +0900, Minchan Kim wrote:
<snip>

> > hm... zsmalloc is getting sooo complex now.
> >
> > `system_wq' -- can we have problems here when the system is getting
> > low on memory and workers are getting increasingly busy trying to
> > allocate the memory for some other purposes?
> >
> > _theoretically_ zsmalloc can stack a number of ready-to-release zspages,
> > which won't be accessible to zsmalloc, nor will they be released. how likely
> > is this? hm, can zsmalloc take zspages from that deferred release list when
> > it wants to allocate a new zspage?
>
> Done.
>
> >
> > do you also want to kick the deferred page release from the shrinker
> > callback, for example?
>
> Yeb, it can be. I will do it at next revision. :)
> Thanks!
>

I tried it now but I feel strongly we want to fix shrinker first.
Now, shrinker doesn't consider VM's request(i.e., sc->nr_to_scan) but
shrink all objects which could make latency huge.

I want to fix it as another issue and then adding ZS_EMPTY pool pages
purging logic based on it because many works for zsmalloc stucked
with this patchset now which churns old code heavily. :(
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Re: [PATCH v6 11/12] zsmalloc: page migration support

Sergey Senozhatsky
Hello Minchan,

On (05/25/16 14:14), Minchan Kim wrote:
[..]

> > > do you also want to kick the deferred page release from the shrinker
> > > callback, for example?
> >
> > Yeb, it can be. I will do it at next revision. :)
> > Thanks!
> >
>
> I tried it now but I feel strongly we want to fix shrinker first.
> Now, shrinker doesn't consider VM's request(i.e., sc->nr_to_scan) but
> shrink all objects which could make latency huge.

hm... may be.

I only briefly thought about it a while ago; and have no real data on
hands. it was something as follows:
between zs_shrinker_count() and zs_shrinker_scan() a lot can change;
and _theoretically_ attempting to zs_shrinker_scan() even a smaller
sc->nr_to_scan still may result in a "full" pool scan, taking all of
the classes ->locks one by one just because classes are not the same
as a moment ago. which is even more probable, I think, once the system
is getting low on memory and begins to swap out, for instance. because
in the latter case we increase the number of writes to zspool and,
thus, reduce its chances to be compacted. if the system would still
demand free memory, then it'd keep calling zs_shrinker_count() and
zs_shrinker_scan() on us; at some point, I think, zs_shrinker_count()
would start returning 0. ...if some of the classes would have huge
fragmentation then we'd keep these class' ->locks for some time,
moving objects. other than that we probably would just iterate the
classes.

purely theoretical.

do you have any numbers?

hm, probably it makes sense to change it. but if the change will
replace "1 full pool scan" to "2 scans of 1/2 of pool's classes",
then I'm less sure.

> I want to fix it as another issue and then adding ZS_EMPTY pool pages
> purging logic based on it because many works for zsmalloc stucked
> with this patchset now which churns old code heavily. :(

        -ss
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Re: [PATCH v6 11/12] zsmalloc: page migration support

Minchan Kim-2
Hi Sergey,

On Thu, May 26, 2016 at 12:23:45AM +0900, Sergey Senozhatsky wrote:

> Hello Minchan,
>
> On (05/25/16 14:14), Minchan Kim wrote:
> [..]
> > > > do you also want to kick the deferred page release from the shrinker
> > > > callback, for example?
> > >
> > > Yeb, it can be. I will do it at next revision. :)
> > > Thanks!
> > >
> >
> > I tried it now but I feel strongly we want to fix shrinker first.
> > Now, shrinker doesn't consider VM's request(i.e., sc->nr_to_scan) but
> > shrink all objects which could make latency huge.
>
> hm... may be.
>
> I only briefly thought about it a while ago; and have no real data on
> hands. it was something as follows:
> between zs_shrinker_count() and zs_shrinker_scan() a lot can change;
> and _theoretically_ attempting to zs_shrinker_scan() even a smaller
> sc->nr_to_scan still may result in a "full" pool scan, taking all of
> the classes ->locks one by one just because classes are not the same
> as a moment ago. which is even more probable, I think, once the system
> is getting low on memory and begins to swap out, for instance. because
> in the latter case we increase the number of writes to zspool and,
> thus, reduce its chances to be compacted. if the system would still
> demand free memory, then it'd keep calling zs_shrinker_count() and
> zs_shrinker_scan() on us; at some point, I think, zs_shrinker_count()
> would start returning 0. ...if some of the classes would have huge
> fragmentation then we'd keep these class' ->locks for some time,
> moving objects. other than that we probably would just iterate the
> classes.
>
> purely theoretical.
>
> do you have any numbers?

Unfortunately, I don't have now. However, I don't feel we need a data for
that because *unbounded work* within VM interaction context is bad. ;-)

>
> hm, probably it makes sense to change it. but if the change will
> replace "1 full pool scan" to "2 scans of 1/2 of pool's classes",
> then I'm less sure.

Other shrinker is on same page. They have *cache* which is helpful for
performance but if it's not hot, it can lose performance if memory
pressure is severe. For the balance, comprimise approach is shrinker.

We can see fragement space in zspage as wasted memory which is bad
on the other hand we can see it as cache to store upcoming compressed
page. So, too much freeing can hurt the performance so, let's obey
VM's rule. If memory pressure goes severe, they want to reclaim more
pages with proportional of memory pressure.

>
> > I want to fix it as another issue and then adding ZS_EMPTY pool pages
> > purging logic based on it because many works for zsmalloc stucked
> > with this patchset now which churns old code heavily. :(
>
> -ss
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